Order Code RL32492 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Updated June 29, 2007 Hannah Fischer Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group Kim Klarman Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group Mari-Jana “M-J” Oboroceanu Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Summary This report is written in response to numerous requests for war casualty statistics and lists of war dead. It provides tables, compiled by sources at the Department of Defense (DOD), indicating the number of casualties among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions. Wars covered include the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam Conflict, and the Persian Gulf War. Military operations covered include the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission, Lebanon Peacekeeping, Urgent Fury in Grenada, Just Cause in Panama, Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Restore Hope in Somalia, Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and the ongoing Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). For the more recent conflicts, starting with the Korean War, more detailed information on types of casualties, and when available, demographics have been included. This report also cites sources of published lists of military personnel killed in principal wars and combat actions. This report will be updated as events warrant. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Sources of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Additional Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 List of Tables Table 1. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths — Selected Military Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 3. Active Duty Military Deaths — Race/Ethnicity Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 4. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2006, Part I, Total Military Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2006, Part II, Cause of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 6. Comparison of Death, Wounded and Amputation Statistics in American Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 7. Korean War — Casualty Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 8. Vietnam Conflict — Casualty Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 9. Persian Gulf War — Casualty Summary DesertShield/Desert Storm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 10. Global War on Terrorism — Operation Enduring Freedom by Casualty Category Within Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom, Demographics of Military Deaths . . . . 14 Table 12. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action . . . . . . . . 15 Table 13. Operation Iraqi Freedom, By Casualty Category Within Service, March 19, 2003, Through June 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, March 19, 2003, Through April 30, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, May 1, 2003, Through June 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 16. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Wounded In Action, March 19, 2003, Through June 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Introduction This report is written in response to numerous requests for war casualty statistics and lists of war dead. It provides tables, compiled by sources at the Department of Defense (DOD), indicating the number of fatalities and numbers of wounded among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions from the Revolutionary War to the current Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) (operations in Afghanistan and related conflicts). A review of the composite data reveals the following. ! During the period between the Revolutionary War and the Persian Gulf War, it was the Civil War that produced the most American fatalities, when Union statistics and Confederate estimates are taken into account. ! World War II was the first war in which there were more battle deaths than deaths from other causes such as accidents, disease, and infections. ! With a total of 382 in-theater deaths, 147 of which were battle deaths, the Persian Gulf War was the least costly in terms of fatalities (see Table 1). ! The ongoing Operation Iraqi Freedom to date has produced more than nine times the number of in-theater deaths than the Persian Gulf War (which lasted seven months). The casualty statistics for wars long ended are updated periodically, sometimes yearly. This almost always reflects the identification of remains of persons previously listed as missing in action and those persons’ reclassification as dead. Other reasons, much rarer, include the discovery of errors in casualty records for individuals or categories of people. CRS-2 Table 1. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties Casualtiesa War/ Conflict Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds Not Mortalb Revolutionary Warc Total — 4,435 4,435 — 6,188 1775-1783 Army — 4,044 4,044 — 6,004 Navy — 342 342 — 114 Marines — 49 49 — 70 War of 1812d Total 286,730 2,260 2,260 — 4,505 1812-1815 Army — 1,950 1,950 — 4,000 Navy — 265 265 — 439 Marines — 45 45 — 66 Mexican Ward Total 78,718 13,283 1,733 11,550 4,152 1846-1848 Army — 13,271 1,721 11,550 4,102 Navy — 1 1 — 3 Marines — 11 11 — 47 Civil War Total 2,213,363 364,511 140,414 224,097 281,881 (Union Forces Only)d Army 2,128,948 359,528 138,154 221,374 280,040 1861-1865e Navy 84,415 4,523 2,112 2,411 1,710 — 460 148 312 131 Spanish-American War Total 306,760 2,446 385 2,061 1,662 Armyf 280,564 2,430 369 2,061 1,594 Navy 22,875 10 10 — 47 3,321 6 6 — 21 Marines Marines World War I Total 4,734,991 116,516 53,402 63,114 204,002 1917-1918 Armyg 4,057,101 106,378 50,510 55,868 193,663 599,051 7,287 431 6,856 819 78,839 2,851 2,461 390 9,520 Navy Marines CRS-3 Casualtiesa War/ Conflict Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds Not Mortalb World War II Total 16,112,566 405,399 291,557 113,842 671,846 1941-1946h Army i 11,260,000 318,274 234,874 83,400 565,861 Navyj 4,183,466 62,614 36,950 25,664 37,778 669,100 24,511 19,733 4,778 68,207 Marines Korean War Total 5,720,000 36,574 33,741 2,833 103,284 1950-1953k Army 2,834,000 29,856 27,731 2,125 77,596 Navy 1,177,000 658 506 152 1,576 424,000 4,508 4,266 242 23,744 Air Force 1,285,000 1,552 1,238 314 368 Vietnam Conflict Total 8,744,000 58,209 47,424 10,785 153,303 1964-1973l Army 4,368,000 38,218 30,957 7,261 96,802 Navy 1,842,000 2,565 1,631 934 4,178 794,000 14,840 13,091 1,749 51,392 Air Force 1,740,000 2,586 1,745 841 931 Persian Gulf War Total 2,225,000 382 147 235 467 1990-1991m Army 782,000 224 98 126 354 Navy 669,000 55 5 50 12 Marines 213,000 68 24 44 92 Air Force 561,000 35 20 15 9 Marines Marines Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/WCPRINCIPAL.pdf], accessed on June 27, 2007. a. Data prior to World War I are based on incomplete records in many cases. Casualty data are confined to dead and wounded and, therefore, exclude personnel captured or missing in action who were subsequently returned to military control. b. Marine Corps data for World War II, the Spanish-American War, and prior wars represent the number of individuals wounded, whereas all other data in this column represent the total number (incidence) of wounds. c. Not known, but estimates range from 184,000 to 250,000. d. As reported by the Commissioner of Pensions in the annual report for the fiscal year 1903. e. Authoritative statistics for the Confederate forces are not available. Estimates of the number who served range from 600,000 to 1,500,000. The final report of the Provost Marshal General, 1863-1866, indicated 133,821Confederate deaths (74,524 battle and 59,297 other) based upon incomplete returns. In addition, an estimated 26,000 to 31,000 Confederate personnel died in Union prisons. f. Number serving covers the period April 21 to August 13, 1898, while dead and wounded data are for the period May 1 to August 31, 1898. Active hostilities ceased on August 13, 1898, but CRS-4 ratifications of the Treaty of Peace were not exchanged between the United States and Spain until April 11, 1899. g. Includes air service. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties suffered by American forces in northern Russia to August 25, 1919, and in Siberia to April 1, 1920. Other deaths cover the period April 1, 1917, to December 31, 1918. h. Data are for the period December 1, 1941, through December 31, 1946, when hostilities were officially terminated by presidential proclamation, but a few battle deaths or wounds not mortal were incurred after the Japanese acceptance of the Allied peace terms on August 14, 1945. Number serving from December 1, 1941, through August 31, 1945, were: Total 14,903,213; Army 10,420,000; Navy 3,883,520; and Marine Corps 599,693. i. Includes Army air forces. j. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties incurred in October 1941 due to hostile action. k. Worldwide military deaths during the Korean War totaled 54,246. In-theater casualty records are updated annually. l. Number serving covers the period August 5, 1964, (“Vietnam era” begins) through January 27, 1973 (date of cease-fire). Deaths include the period November 1, 1955, (commencement date for the Military Assistance Advisory Group) through May 15, 1975 (date last American servicemember left Southeast Asia, i.e. Vietnam). Wounds not mortal exclude 150,332 persons not requiring hospital care. Casualty records are updated annually, including current deaths that are directly attributed to combat in the Vietnam Conflict. m. Coast Guard numbers are included with Navy. Report does not include one POW (Speicher). Casualty records are updated annually. CRS-5 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths — Selected Military Operations Military Operation/Incident Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Total Iranian Hostage Rescue Non-Hostile Mission April 25, 1980 0 0 5 3 8 Lebanon Peacekeeping August 25, 1982 February 26, 1984a Hostile 3 19 0 234 256 Non-Hostile 5 2 0 2 9 Total 8 21 0 236 265 Hostile 11 4 0 3 18 Non-Hostile 1 0 0 0 1 Total 12 4 0 3 19 Hostile 18 4 0 1 23 Urgent Fury, Grenada, 1983 Just Cause, Panama, 1989 Casualty Type Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991 — Desert Shield Non-Hostile 21 36 9 18 84 — Desert Storm Hostile 98 6 20 24 148 Non-Hostile 105 14 6 26 151 Subtotal 203 20 26 50 299 Desert Shield/Storm Total 224 56 35 68 383 Restore Hope/Unosom, Somalia, 1992-1994 Hostile 27 0 0 2 29 Non-Hostile 4 0 8 2 14 Total 31 0 8 4 43 Non-Hostile 3 0 0 1 4 Uphold Democracy, Haiti, 1994-1996 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/table13.htm], accessed on June 27, 2007. a. Place of casualty, Lebanon. CRS-6 Table 3. Active Duty Military Deaths — Race/Ethnicity Summary (as of March 15, 2003 Race/ Ethnicity Number of Deaths Korean War F M Vietnam Conflict F Persian Gulf War M F Since 1980 (all) M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 104 226 3 12 151 Asian 241 139 1 15 332 3,075 7,241 63 472 5,998 1 24 366 Black or African American 3 Hispanic or Latino 306 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 575 349 14 18 322 More Than One Race or Unknown 2,853 204 3 37 590 148 229 2 2 120 2 29,272 8 49,802 12 280 1,250 24,699 2 36,574 8 58,190 15 367 1,830 32,578 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander White Total a Percentages F M F M F M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.5 Asian 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.8 1.0 Black or African American 8.4 12.4 17.2 25.8 18.4 Hispanic or Latino 0.8 0.3 1.3 1.1 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 1.6 0.6 3.8 1.0 1.0 More Than One Race or Unknown 7.8 0.4 0.8 2.0 1.8 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.4 20.0 White 100.0 80.0 100.0 85.6 80.0 76.3 68.3 75.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/RACE-OMB-WC.pdf], accessed on June 27, 2007. a. Percentages of total female or male deaths, divided by ethnicity. For instance, in the Persian Gulf War, 20% of female deaths were Black or African American and 80% of female deaths were White. CRS-7 Table 4. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2006, Part I, Total Military Personnel 22,000 Selected Reserve FTEb 86,872 Total Military FTE 2,159,630 2,093,032 2,112,609 22,000 41,000 91,719 97,458 2,206,751 2,251,067 1983 1984 2,123,909 2,138,339 49,000 55,000 100,455 104,583 2,273,364 2,297,922 1985 1986 1987 2,150,379 2,177,845 2,166,611 64,000 69,000 71,000 108,806 113,010 115,086 2,323,185 2,359,855 2,352,697 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2,121,659 2,112,128 2,046,806 1,943,937 1,773,996 1,675,269 1,581,649 1,502,343 1,456,266 1,418,773 1,381,034 1,367,838 1,372,352 1,384,812 72,000 74,200 74,250 70,250 67,850 68,500 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 65,000 115,836 117,056 137,268 184,002 111,491 105,768 99,833 94,585 92,409 94,609 92,536 93,104 93,078 102,284 2,309,495 2,303,384 2,258,324 2,198,189 1,953,337 1,849,537 1,746,482 1,661,928 1,613,310 1,578,382 1,538,570 1,525,942 1,530,430 1,552,196 2002 2003 2004 2005 1,411,200 1,423,348 1,411,287 1,378,014 66,000 66,000 66,000 66,000 149,942 243,284 234,629 220,000 1,627,142 1,732,632 1,711,916 1,664,014 2006 1,378,014 66,000 220,000 1,664,014 Calendar Year Active Dutya Full-Time (est.) Guard-Reserve 1980 2,050,758 1981 1982 Total Deaths 2,392 2,380 2,319 2,465 1,999 2,252 1,984 1,983 1,819 1,636 1,507 1,787 1,293 1,213 1,075 1,040 974 817 827 796 758 891 999 1,228 1,874 1,942 1,858 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/Death_Rates1.pdf], accessed on June 27, 2007. Notes: As of February 28, 2007 (reflects preliminary counts for 2006 and revised figures for 2004 and 2005). a. Official Department of Defense end-strengths as of December 31 for military pay accounts. Excludes full time Guard and Reserve. b. Full time equivalent (FTE) is based on official Department of Defense fiscal year end selected reserve strength (10% of the figure is used to estimate days on active duty). CRS-8 Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2006, Part II, Cause of Death Calendar Year Total Deaths Accident Hostile Self Terrorist Homicide Illness Pending Action Inflicted Attack 1980 2,392 1,556 174 419 231 1981 2,380 1,524 145 457 241 13 1982 2,319 1,495 108 446 254 16 1983 2,465 1,413 18 115 419 218 263 19 1984 1,999 1,293 1 84 374 225 6 16 1985 2,252 1,476 111 363 275 5 22 1986 1,984 1,199 2 103 384 269 1987 1,983 1,172 37 104 383 260 2 25 1988 1,819 1,080 90 321 285 17 26 1989 1,636 1,000 58 294 224 1990 1,507 880 74 277 232 1991 1,787 931 112 308 256 1992 1,293 676 109 252 238 1 17 1993 1,213 632 86 221 236 29 9 1994 1,075 544 83 206 232 1995 1,040 538 67 174 250 7 4 1996 974 527 52 173 188 19 14 1997 817 433 42 170 159 1998 827 445 26 168 10 161 1999 796 436 37 150 13 145 2000 758 398 34 138 2001 891 437 3 49 185 2002 999 547 18 51 2003 1,228 440 344 2004 1,874 604 2005 1,942 2006 1,858 23 147 1 1 Undetermined 11 27 37 1 43 33 10 13 3 14 15 151 17 20 1 140 55 21 190 6 160 27 36 207 16 167 18 739 46 270 19 188 8 632 739 49 281 72 150 19 465 753 30 205 238 155 12 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/Death_Rates.pdf], accessed on June 27, 2007. Note: As of February 28, 2007 (reflects preliminary counts for 2006 and revised figures for 2004 and 2005). CRS-9 Table 6. Comparison of Death, Wounded and Amputation Statistics in American Conflicts Deathsa Woundeda Amputationsb,c Ratio Deaths/ Wounded 3,091 23,417 472 1:7.6 1:49.6 1:6.5 352 1,110 37 1:3.2 1:30 1:9.5 382 467 N/A 1:1.2 N/A N/A Vietnam 58,209 153,303 5,283 1:2.6 1:29.0 1:11.0 Korea 36,578 103,284 1,477 1:2.8 1:69.9 1:24.8 World War II 405,399 671,846 7,489 1:1.7 1:89.7 1:54.1 World War I 116,516 204,002 2,610 1:1.8 1:78.2 1:44.6 Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation Enduring Freedom Persian Gulf War Ratio Ratio Amputations/ Amputations/ Wounded Deaths Source: For deaths and wounded: Department of Defense Military Casualties webpage, at [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm]. For amputations: PowerPoint presentation provided by Col. Michael Carino in the Office of the Surgeon General. a. Current as of February 9, 2007. b. Current as of November 31, 2006. c. Individual soldiers may have multiple amputations. CRS-10 Table 7. Korean War — Casualty Summary (as of June 15, 2004) Casualty Type Killed in Action Died of Wounds Missing in Action - Declared Dead Captured - Declared Dead Total Hostile Deaths Missing - Presumed Dead Other Deaths Total Non-Hostile Deaths Total In-Theater Deaths Total Non-Theater Deaths Total Deaths Killed in Action — No Remains Died of Wounds — No Remains Missing in Action - Declared Dead — No Remains Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains Non-Hostile Missing- Presumed Dead — No Remains Non-Hostile Other Deaths — No Remains Total — No Remains Wounded - Not Mortal Number Serving Worldwideb Number Serving In-Theaterb Total 23,615 2,460 4,817 2,849 33,741 8 2,825 2,833 36,574 17,672 54,246 1,533 22 4,578 Army 19,715 1,887 3,337 2,792 27,731 4 2,121 2,125 29,856 7,277 37,133 1,081 22 3,302 Air Force 209 14 991 24 1,238 4 310 314 1,552 5,532 7,084 49 Marines 3,320 532 386 29 4,267 Navy 371 27 103 4 505 242 242 4,509 1,019 5,528 255 154 154 657 3,844 4,501 148 809 373 94 1,901 1,860 13 25 3 8 4 4 84 5 37 6 36 8,126 103,284 5,720,000 1,789,000 6,274 77,596 2,834,000 1,153,000 912 368 1,285,000 241,000 659 23,744 424,000 130,000 281 1,576 1,177,000 265,000 Source: Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/korea.pdf], accessed on June 27, 2007. a. Inclusive dates are June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. Casualty dates after the end date represent servicemembers who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those servicemembers who were involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. b. Estimated figures. CRS-11 Table 8. Vietnam Conflict — Casualty Summary (as of June 15, 2004) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navy Killed in Action 40,934 27,047 1,080 11,501 1,306 Died of Wounds 5,289 3,604 51 1,482 152 Missing in Action-Declared Dead 1,085 261 589 98 137 116 45 25 10 36 47,424 30,957 1,745 13,091 1,631 123 118 0 3 2 Other Deaths 10,662 7,143 841 1,746 932 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 10,785 7,261 841 1,749 934 Total In-Theater Deaths a 58,209 38,218 2,586 14,840 2,565 Killed in Action — No Remains 622 181 221 123 97 Missing in Action-Declared Dead — No Remains 737 216 366 75 80 Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains 53 32 7 4 10 Non-Hostile Missing-Presumed Dead — No Remains 97 92 3 2 336 70 30 37 199 1,845 591 624 242 388 153,303 96,802 931 51,392 4,178 8,744,000 4,368,000 1,740,000 794,000 1,842,000 Number Serving Southeast Asiab 3,403,000 2,276,000 385,000 513,000 229,000 Number Serving South Vietnamb 2,594,000 1,736,000 293,000 391,000 174,000 Captured-Declared Dead Total Hostile Deaths Missing - Presumed Dead Non-Hostile Other Deaths — No Remains Total — No Remains Wounded - Not Mortal Number Serving Worldwide b Source: Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/vietnam.pdf], accessed on June 27, 2007. a. Inclusive dates are November 1, 1955, to May 15, 1975. Casualty dates after the end date represent servicemembers who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those servicemembers who where involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. b. Estimated figures. CRS-12 Table 9. Persian Gulf War — Casualty Summary DesertShield/Desert Storm (as of June 15, 2004) Total Army Air Force Marines Navya,b Killed in Action 143 96 20 22 5 Died of Wounds 4 2 Total Hostile Deaths 147 98 Missing - Presumed Dead 12 Other Deaths 223 Total Non-Hostile Deaths a Casualty Type 2 Missing in Action-Declared Dead Captured-Declared Dead 20 24 5 2 8 2 126 13 36 48 235 126 15 44 50 382 224 35 68 55 Total Non-Theater Deaths 1,590 608 299 171 512 Total Deaths 1,972 832 334 239 567 Total In-Theater Deaths Killed in Action — No Remains 2 2 Missing in Action — No Remains Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains Non-Hostile Missing- Presumed Dead — No Remains 12 2 8 2 Total — No Remains 14 2 8 4 Wounded - Not Mortal 467 354 9 92 12 2,225,000 782,000 561,000 213,000 669,000 Serving In-Theater — Active Duty 584,342 271,654 70,741 90,866 151,081 Serving In-Theater — Recalled 110,208 78,512 11,666 12,660 7,370 Non-Hostile Other Deaths — No Remains Serving Worldwide b Source: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/GWSUM.pdf], accessed on June 27, 2007. a. Inclusive dates are August 7, 1990, to September 14, 1991. Any casualty date in the detailed records after the end date represents a servicemember who was wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds or a servicemember who was in a missing status during a part of the war period and later declared dead. b. Estimated figures includes Coast Guard. Report does not include one POW (Speicher). CRS-13 Tables 10-12 provide statistics on casualties during Operation Enduring Freedom, which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. Table 10 provides statistics on total casualties by type. Table 11 provides statistics on the demographics of military deaths. Table 12 provides statistics on the demographics of servicemembers who have been wounded in action. These statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and records are processed through the U.S. military system. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf]. Table 10. Global War on Terrorism — Operation Enduring Freedom by Casualty Category Within Service (From October 7, 2001, through June 2, 2007) Casualty Type Total Navyc Army Killed in Action 173 144 Died of Woundsa 41 35 Total Hostile Deaths 214 179 Accident 139 11 Marines 16 Air Force 6 7 4 2 16 10 9 94 7 22 16 8 2 1 Died While Missing In Action Died While Captured Illness Homicide 1 1 Self-Inflicted 17 12 3 2 Undetermined 5 4 1 Pendingb 7 3 2 2 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 180 121 15 28 16 Total Deaths 394 300 31 38 25 Total Wounded In Action 1,292 1,119 10 93 70 Total Medical Air Transported (Hostile and Non-Hostile) 6,274 4,747 251 407 869 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/WOTSUM.pdf], accessed on June 21, 2007. a. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. b. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. c. Navy totals include Coast Guard. CRS-14 Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom, Demographics of Military Deaths (From October 7, 2001, Through June 2, 2007) Casualty Type Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force Hostile 214 179 16 10 9 Nonhostile 180 121 15 28 16 Total 394 300 31 38 25 Male 382 294 29 37 22 12 6 2 1 3 Total 394 300 31 38 25 Officer 62 46 6 6 4 E5-E9 180 138 16 11 15 E1-E4 152 116 9 21 6 Total 394 300 31 38 25 Age <22 60 42 3 15 22-24 72 53 4 8 7 25-30 116 94 9 8 5 31-35 67 51 7 4 5 >35 79 60 8 3 8 Total 394 300 31 38 25 Active 319 230 30 35 24 Reserve 25 21 1 3 National Guard 50 49 394 300 31 38 25 American Indian or Alaska Native 6 3 1 1 1 Asian 5 4 1 Black or African American 27 20 3 4 Hispanic or Latino 34 27 2 2 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 3 2 1 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 4 3 White 315 241 23 31 20 Total 394 300 31 38 25 Female Total 1 3 1 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OEFDEATHS.pdf], accessed on June 21, 2007. Note: Casualty areas include in/around Afghanistan, Republic of the Phillippines, Southwest Asia, and other locations. CRS-15 Table 12. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action (From October 7, 2001, Through June 2, 2007) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 1,292 1,119 10 93 70 Total 1,292 1,119 10 93 70 Male 1,281 1,110 10 93 68 11 9 1,292 1,119 Officer 137 117 E5-E9 553 477 E1-E4 602 Total Nonhostile Female 2 93 70 10 10 7 19 50 525 3 64 10 1,292 1,119 10 93 70 Age <22 207 173 2 30 2 22-24 114 275 27 6 25-30 151 336 3 19 25 31-35 174 147 2 6 19 >35 180 159 3 18 40 29 3 8 1,292 1,119 10 93 70 American Indian or Alaska Native 11 9 1 1 Asian 17 15 2 Black or African American 69 60 5 4 Hispanic or Latino 69 66 1 2 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 38 26 3 7 2 1 1 White 1,087 942 7 77 61 Total 1,292 1,119 10 93 70 Total Not Available Total Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 10 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division, [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OEFWIA.pdf], accessed on June 21, 2007. Note: Casualty areas include in/around Afghanistan, Republic of the Phillippines, Southwest Asia, and other locations. CRS-16 Tables 13-16 provide statistics on casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing. Table 13 provides statistics on total casualties by type. Tables 14 and 15 provide statistics on the demographics of military deaths, divided between the period of major combat operations (March 19, 2003, through April 30, 2003) and the ongoing presence of U.S. forces in Iraq after the end of major combat operations (May 1, 2003, through present). Table 16 provides statistics on the demographics of servicemembers who have been wounded in action. These statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and records are processed through the U.S. military system. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf]. Table 13. Operation Iraqi Freedom, By Casualty Category Within Service, March 19, 2003, Through June 2, 2007 Casualty Type Killed in Action Total Navyc Army Marines Air Force 2,193 1,497 51 626 652 480 1 171 Died While Missing In Action 7 7 Died While Captured 2 2 Total Hostile Deaths 2,854 1,986 52 797 19 405 279 10 106 10 Illness 63 53 7 2 1 Homicide 15 10 1 2 2 113 96 3 14 8 7 1 22 3 3 16 626 448 25 140 13 3,480 2,434 77 937 32 Total Wounded in Action 25,830 16,975 561 8,003 291 Total Medical Air Transported (Hostile and Non-Hostile) 34,778 28,418 987 4,126 1,247 Died of Wounds a Accident Self-Inflicted Undetermined Pendingb Total Non-Hostile Deaths Total Deaths 19 Source: Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division[http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/WOTSUM.pdf], accessed on June 21, 2007. a. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. b. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. c. Navy totals include Coast Guard. CRS-17 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, March 19, 2003, Through April 30, 2003 (As of June 2, 2007) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 109 47 3 56 3 30 19 1 9 1 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Male 138 65 4 65 4 1 1 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Officer 28 11 3 11 3 E5-E9 36 19 16 1 E1-E4 75 36 1 38 Total 139 66 4 65 Age <22 33 15 18 22-24 30 14 16 25-30 35 13 31-35 19 12 >35 22 12 1 7 2 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Active 126 61 3 59 3 Reserve 9 2 1 6 National Guard 4 3 139 66 American Indian or Alaska Native 2 2 Asian 2 1 Black or African American 23 15 1 7 Hispanic or Latino 23 9 1 13 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 2 1 1 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2 1 1 White 85 37 2 42 4 Total 139 66 4 65 4 NonHostile Female Total 3 17 4 2 7 1 4 65 4 1 Source: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OIF-Deaths-Before.pdf], accessed on June 21, 2007. Note: The President’s statement concerning the end of major combat operations in Iraq can be found in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, May 1, 2003, p. 516. CRS-18 Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, May 1, 2003, Through June 2, 2007 (As of June 2, 2007) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Navya Army Marines Air Force 2,745 1,939 49 741 16 596 429 24 131 12 Total 3,341 2,368 73 872 28 Male 3,270 2,311 67 866 26 71 57 6 6 2 3,341 2,368 73 872 28 310 240 6 58 6 E5-E9 1,078 895 32 137 14 E1-E4 1,953 1,233 35 677 8 Total 3,341 2,368 73 872 28 Age <22 794 469 6 316 3 22-24 916 600 15 297 4 25-30 894 677 21 187 9 31-35 343 282 15 41 5 >35 394 340 16 31 7 Total 3,341 2,368 73 872 28 Active 1,646 1,826 54 741 25 Reserve 274 121 19 131 3 National Guard 421 421 3,341 2,368 73 872 28 American Indian or Alaska Native 35 20 1 14 Asian 63 37 5 21 Black or African American 307 265 5 32 5 Hispanic or Latino 353 221 9 120 3 Multiple Races, pending or unknown 41 33 6 2 Native Hawaiian or Pacific islander 34 29 5 White 2,508 1,763 53 674 18 Total 3,341 2,368 73 872 28 Nonhostile Female Total Officer Total Source: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/OIF-Deaths-After.pdf], accessed on June 21, 2007. Note: After the end of major combat operations. a. Navy totals include one Coast Guard death. CRS-19 Table 16. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Wounded In Action, March 19, 2003, Through June 2, 2007 Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 25,830 16,975 561 8,003 291 Total 25,830 16,975 561 8,003 291 Male 25,340 16,545 557 7,968 270 490 430 4 35 21 Total 25,830 16,975 561 8,003 291 Officer 1,479 1,062 29 370 18 E5-E9 8,232 6,416 196 1,448 172 E1-E4 16,119 9,497 336 6,185 101 Total 25,830 16,975 561 8,003 291 Age <22 6,005 3,128 91 2,758 28 22-24 7,255 4,624 137 2,427 67 25-30 6,537 4,811 137 1,498 91 31-35 2,573 2,076 64 395 38 >35 2,535 2,118 83 268 66 925 218 49 657 1 25,830 16,975 561 8,003 291 21 72 3 Nonhostile Female Not Available Total American Indian or Alaska Native 259 Asian 227 226 17 92 2 Black or African American 2,110 1,843 35 216 16 Hispanic or Latino 1,682 1,248 23 389 22 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 2,377 537 58 1,766 16 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 146 119 4 20 3 White 18,919 12,839 403 5,448 229 Total 25,830 16,975 561 8,003 291 Source: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oif-wounded-total.pdf], accessed on June 21, 2007. CRS-20 Additional Resources Sources of Statistics The Department of Defense Directorate of Information, Operations, and Reports (DIOR) provides detailed historical tables as well as annual statistics on active duty military deaths at [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm]. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has published statistics derived from its Southeast Asia Combat Area Casualties Current File. This includes tables on Vietnam casualty data by branch of service, race, religion, state, and other categories at [http://www.archives.gov/research/vietnam-war/casualtystatistics.html]. The Women in Military Service to America Memorial (WIMSA) presents casualty data on women in major wars as researched by its historian’s office at [http://www.womensmemorial.org/H&C/Resources/hfaq.html]. Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead The Congressional Research Service also receives requests for lists of the names of war dead, often for use on memorials, tributes, or for other ceremonial purposes. This report cites the following sources of published lists of U.S. military personnel killed in major wars and other combat actions. World War II Army casualty lists for World War II are published in World War II Honor List of the Dead and Missing (U.S. War Department, 1946). The lists are also available online at [http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/army-casualties/index.html]. Navy casualty lists are published in State Summary of War Casualties (U.S. Navy Department, 1946). The National Archives also publishes casualty lists online at [http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/ww2/navy-casualties/index.html]. Korean War and Vietnam War The National Archives has made state-level casualty lists from the Korean War and the Vietnam War available at [http://www.archives.gov/research/korean-war/ casualty-lists/]. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) The DIOR website lists the names of individuals killed in OEF at [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oef_list_of_names.pdf]. CRS-21 Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) The DIOR website lists the names of individuals killed in OIF at [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oif_list_of_names.pdf]. Wars Prior to World War II Lists of casualties that are not available from a central source may be obtained on a state level from each state’s Adjutant General’s office. The Adjutant General of each state is the military commander of the state’s national board. The following is a list of these offices. Alabama (Acting) Major General John M. White, 1720 Cong. W. L. Dickinson Dr., Montgomery, AL 36109, (334)394-7252 Alaska Major General Craig E. Campbell, P.O. Box 5800, Fort Richardson, AK 99505-0800, (907) 428-6007, craig.campbell2@us.army.mil American Samoa Attorney General Sialega Malaetasi Togafau, America Samoa Government, P.O. Box 7, Pago Pago, AS 96799, (684) 633-4163 Arizona Major General David P. Rataczak, Emergency and Military Affairs Department, 5636 East McDowell Road, Phoenix, AZ 85008-3495, (602) 267-2710 Arkansas Major General Bill Wofford, Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, AR 72199-9600, (501) 212-5001, e-mail to assistant: edie.wilkerson@ar.ngb.army.mil California Adjutant General William H. Wade, II, 9800 Goethe Road, Sacramento, CA 95827-9101, (916) 854-3500 Colorado Brigadier General H. Michael Edwards, USAF, 6848 South Revere Parkway, Centennial, CO 80112-6709, (720) 250-1500 Connecticut Major General Thaddeus J. Martin, National Guard Armory, 360 Broad Street, Hartford, CT 06105-3795, (860) 524-4953 Delaware Major General Francis D. Vavala, USA, National Guard, First Regiment Road, Wilmington, DE 19808-2191, (302) 326-7001, frank.vavala@us.army.mil District of Columbia Commanding General David F. Wherley, Jr., DC National Guard, 2001 East Capitol Street, SE, Washington, DC 20003, (202) 685-9798 Florida Major General Douglas Burnett, St. Francis Barracks, P.O. Box 1008, Saint Augustine, FL 32085-1008, (904) 823-0100 CRS-22 Georgia Lieutenant General David B. Poythress, USAF, Defense Department, 935 East Confederate Avenue, SE, Atlanta, GA 30316-0965, (678) 569-6001, david.poythress@ga.ngb.army.mil Guam Brigadier General Don Goldhorn, Fort Juan Muna, 622 East Harmon Industrial Park Road, Tamuning GU 96911-4421, (671) 475- 0802 Hawaii Major General Robert G. F. Lee, 3949 Diamond Head Road, Honolulu, HI 96816-4495, (808) 733-4246 Idaho Major General Lawrence Lafrenz, Gowen Field, 4040 West Guard Street, Boise, ID 83705-5004, (208) 422-5242 Illinois Major General Randal E. Thomas, Military Affairs Department, 1301 N. MacArthur Boulevard, Springfield, IL 62702-2399, (217) 761-3500, randal.e.thomas@us.army.mil Indiana Major General R. Martin Umbarger, Joint Forces Headquarters-Indiana, 2002 South Holt Road, Indianapolis, IN 46241-4839, (317) 247-3559, marty.umbarger@us.army.mil Iowa Major General Ron Dardis, 7105 NW 70th Avenue, Johnston, IA 50131-1824, (515) 252-4211, ron.dardis@ia.ngb.army.mil Kansas Major General Tod Bunting, 2800 SW Topeka Boulevard, Topeka, KS 666111287, (785) 274-1001, tod.bunting@us.army.mil Kentucky Major General Donald C. Storm, Boone National Guard Center, 100 Minuteman Parkway, Frankfort, KY 40601, (502) 607-1558 Louisiana Major General Bennett C. Landreneau, USA, Camp Beauregard, Building 304 F Street, Pineville, LA 71360, (318) 641-3858 Maine Major General John W. “Bill” Libby, Camp Keyes, Augusta, ME 04333-0033, (207) 626-4271, John.W.Libby@maine.gov Maryland Major General Bruce F. Tuxill, USAF, 5th Regiment Armory, 29th Division Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-2288, (410) 576-6097, bruce.tuxill@mdbalt.ang.af.mil Massachusetts General Oliver J. Mason, Jr., 50 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757, (508) 2336552 Michigan Major General Thomas Cutler, 3411 North Martin Luther King Boulevard, Lansing, MI 48906, (517) 481-8083 Minnesota Adjutant General Larry W. Shellito, 20 West 12th Street, St. Paul, MN 551552098, (651) 268-8924 CRS-23 Mississippi Major General Harold A. Cross, P.O. Box 5027, Jackson, MS 39296-5027, (601) 313-6232, harold.cross@us.army.mil Missouri Major General King E. Sidwell, 2302 Militia Drive, Jefferson City, MO 651011203, (573) 638-9710 Montana Major General Randall Mosley, P.O. Box 4789, Fort Harrison, MT 59636-4789, (406) 324-3010, randall.mosley@us.army.mil Nebraska Major General Roger Lempke, 1300 Military Road, Lincoln, NE 68508-1090, (402) 309-7210, roger.lempke@us.army.mil Nevada Major General Cynthia N. Kirkland, 2460 Fairview Drive, Carson City, NV 89701-5502, (775) 887-7302, cindy.kirkland@nvreno.ang.af.mil New Hampshire Major General Kenneth R. Clark, Four Pembroke Road, Concord, NH 033015652, (603) 225-1200, k.clark@us.army.mil New Jersey Major General Glenn K. Rieth, USA, 101 Eggert Crossing Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648-2805, (609) 530-6956, glenn.rieth@njdmava.state.nj.us New Mexico Brigadier General Kenny C. Montoya, 47 Bataan Boulevard, Santa Fe, NM 87508, (505) 474-1210, Kenny.Montoya@nm.ngb.army.mil New York Major General Joseph J. Taluto, USA, 330 Old Niskayuna Road, Latham, NY 12110-2224, (518) 786-4502 North Carolina Major General William E. Ingram, Jr., USAR, 4105 Reedy Creek Road, Raleigh, NC 27607-6410, (703) 695-7785 North Dakota Major General David A. Sprynczynatyk, USA, P.O. Box 5511, Bismarck, ND 58506-5511, (701) 333-2000 Ohio Major General Gregory L. Wayt, 2825 West Dublin Granville Road, Columbus, OH 43235-2789, (614) 336-7070 Oklahoma Major General Harry M. Wyatt, III, 3501 Military Circle, Oklahoma City, OK 73111-4398, (405) 228-5201, harry.wyatt@ok.ngb.army.mil Oregon Major General Raymont Fred Rees, 1776 Militia Way, SE, Salem, OR 97309-5047, (503) 584-3991 Pennsylvania Major General Jessica L. Wright, Building S-O-47, Fort Indiantown Gap, Annville, PA 17003-5002, (717) 861-8500, Jessica.Wright@pa.ngb.army.mil Puerto Rico Adjutant General David Carriyn-Baralt, P.O. Box 9023786, San Juan, PR 00902-3786, (787) 289-1631 CRS-24 Rhode Island Major General Robert Thomas Bray, 645 New London Avenue, Cranston, RI 02920-3097, (401) 275-4102, robert.bray@us.army.mil South Carolina Major General Stanhope S. Spears, One National Guard Road, Columbia, SC 29201-4766, (803) 806-4217, stanhope.spears@sc.ngb.army.mil South Dakota Major General Michael A. Gorman, USA, 2823 West Main, Rapid City, SD 57702-8186, (605) 737-6702, michael.gorman@sd.ngb.army.mil Tennessee Major General Gus L. Hargett, Jr., USA, Houston Barracks, 3041 Sidco Drive, Nashville, TN 37204-1502, (615) 313-3001, gus.hargett@tn.ngb.army.mil Texas Major General Charles G. Rodriguez, P.O. Box 5218, Austin, TX 78763-5218, (512) 782-5006 U.S. Virgin Islands Brigadier General Eddy L. Charles, Sr., 4031, Lot #1B, La Grande Princesse, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI 00820-4353, (340) 712-7711 Utah Major General Brian L. Tarbet, USA, P.O. Box 1776, Draper, UT 84020-1776, (801) 523-4401, brian.tarbet@us.army.mil Vermont Major General Michael D. Dubie, USAFR, 789 Vermont National Guard Road, Colchester, VT 05446-3099, (802) 338-3124 Virginia Brigadier General Robert B. Newman, Jr., Fort Pickett, Building 316, Blackstone, VA 23824-6316, (434) 298-6102 Washington Major General Timothy J. Lowenberg, Camp Murray, TA-20, Tacoma, WA 98430-5000, (253) 512-8201 West Virginia Major General Allen E. Tackett, 1703 Coonskin Drive, Charleston, WV 253111085, (304) 561-6316, allen.tackett@wv.ngb.army.mil Wisconsin Major General Albert Wilkening, USAF, 2400 Wright Street, Madison, WI 53708, (608) 242-3001, al.wilkening@wi.ngb.army.mil Wyoming Major General Edward L. Wright, USA, 5500 Bishop Boulevard, Cheyenne, WY 82009-3320, (307) 772-5234, edward.wright@us.army.mil Source: The Leadership Library® on the Internet, a proprietary database, at [http://ldi.bvdep.com/version-303/default.asp]. Additional Reading Defenselink, the official website for the Department of Defense, issues news releases every weekday that identify military personnel killed at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/]. CRS-25 CRS Report RS21578. Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties, by JoAnne O’Bryant. CRS Report RS22537. Iraqi Civilian Deaths Estimates, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS22532. Iraqi Police and Security Forces Casualty Estimates, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS22452. United States Military Casualty Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, by Hannah Fischer. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures (Jefferson, NC, and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001)