ȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱ ž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ Š›’Œ”ȱž›ŒŽ••ȱ ™ŽŒ’Š•’œȱ’—ȱ —Œ˜–ŽȱŽŒž›’¢ȱ Š›Œ‘ȱŘŘǰȱŘŖŖŝȱ ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŝȬśŝŖŖȱ    ǯŒ›œǯ˜Ÿȱ şŞȬşŝŘȱ ȱŽ™˜›ȱ˜›ȱ˜—›Žœœ Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ ž––Š›¢ȱ This report describes recent trends in the number of civil service annuitants and the financial status of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. Among the results presented: • In FY2004, 70% of civilian federal employees were enrolled in the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), which covers employees hired since 1984. Thirty percent were enrolled in the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), which covers only employees hired before 1984. • In FY2006, 2.4 million people received civil service annuity payments. Eightynine percent of these annuitants were covered by CSRS. • More than one-third of all federal employee annuitants and survivor annuitants reside in five states: California, Florida, Texas, Maryland, and Virginia. • The average civilian federal employee who retired in 2006 was 59 years old and had completed 27.8 years of federal service. • The average monthly annuity payment to workers who retired under CSRS in 2006 was $2,452. Workers who retired under FERS received an average monthly annuity of $896. (The FERS retirees had shorter average length of service than CSRS retirees. They also earned Social Security benefits and received an employer match on their contributions to the Thrift Savings Plan.) • At the end of FY2006, the balance of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund was $690 billion, an amount equal to 12 times the amount of outlays from the fund during 2006. The trust fund balance is expected to reach $702 billion by the end of FY2007. • From 1970 to 1985, the number of people receiving civil service annuities rose by one million, an increase of 105%. Between 1985 and 2006 the number of civil service annuitants rose by 482,000, an increase of 24%. • As of September 2006, civilian federal employment, including the Postal Service, totaled 2.7 million workers, the same as in 2000, and a decline of 429,000 (14%) since 1990. • Employees of the federal government are older on average than workers in the private sector. Sixty percent of all federal employees were age 45 or older in 2004, and 42% were age 50 or older. In contrast, only 37% of wage and salary workers in the private sector were 45 or older in 2004, and just 25% were 50 or older. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ˜—Ž—œȱ Fundamentals of the Civil Service Retirement Programs ............................................................... 1 Retirement Coverage of Current Federal Employees...................................................................... 3 Coverage of Current Civil Service Annuitants ................................................................................ 3 State of Residence of Civil Service Annuitants............................................................................... 4 Average Age and Years of Service at Retirement ............................................................................ 6 Average Annuity Amounts under CSRS and FERS .................................................................. 6 Average Age at Retirement of New Federal Retirees, 1990 to 2006............................................... 8 Total and Average Annuity Payments to Retirees and Survivors in 2006 ....................................... 8 Cost-of Living Adjustments under CSRS and FERS ...................................................................... 9 Income and Expenditures of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, 2006................. 10 Recent Trends in the Balance of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund..................... 12 Number of Civil Service Annuitants and Total Annuity Payments, 1970 to 2006 ........................ 13 Civilian Federal Employment, 1940 to 2006................................................................................. 15 Age Distribution of Executive Branch Employees........................................................................ 17 Š‹•Žœȱ Table 1. Retirement Systems Coverage of Federal Employees, by Fiscal Year .............................. 3 Table 2. Retirement Plan Coverage of Civil Service Annuitants, FY2006...................................... 4 Table 3. State of Residence of Civil Service Annuitants, 2006 ....................................................... 4 Table 4. Number, Average Age and Years of Service, and Average Annuity of Civil Service Annuitants Who Retired in 2006 ..................................................................................... 7 Table 5. Average Age at Retirement for New Federal Retirees, 1990 to 2006................................ 8 Table 6. Total and Average Annuity Payments to Retirees and Survivors in 2006.......................... 9 Table 7. Cost-of-Living Adjustments under CSRS and FERS ...................................................... 10 Table 8. Income and Expenditures of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, 2006-2008....................................................................................................................................11 Table 9. Income and Expenditures of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, 1990 to 2008............................................................................................................................... 13 Table 10. Annuitants and Annuity Payments, 1970 to 2006.......................................................... 14 Table 11. Civilian Federal Employment, 1940 to 2006................................................................. 16 Table 12. Age Distribution of Full-time, Permanent Employees................................................... 17 ˜—ŠŒœȱ Author Contact Information .......................................................................................................... 18 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ž—Š–Ž—Š•œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’Ÿ’•ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ ›˜›Š–œȱ The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) was established by P.L. 66-215 in 1920, 15 years before Congress created the Social Security system for workers in the private sector. Because CSRS was designed to provide both retirement and disability benefits, federal employees were excluded from participating in Social Security. State and local governments were permitted to bring their employees into the Social Security program in the early 1950s, and today about threefourths of state and local government employees are covered by Social Security. In the Social Security Amendments of 1983 (P.L. 98-21), Congress mandated participation in Social Security by all civilian federal employees initially hired on or after January 1, 1984. Because Social Security provides both retirement and disability benefits, and because enrolling federal workers in both CSRS and Social Security would have required each employee to contribute more than 13% of pay, Congress directed the development of a new federal employee retirement system with Social Security as the cornerstone. The result of these efforts was the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), created by P.L. 99-335 and enacted on June 6, 1986. The new system, patterned after the retirement programs typical of large employers in the private sector, is composed of three elements: (1) Social Security, (2) the FERS basic annuity (a defined benefit plan), and (3) the Thrift Savings Plan (a defined contribution plan).1 All permanent federal employees whose initial federal employment began after December 31, 1983, are covered by FERS, as are employees who voluntarily switched from CSRS to FERS during “open seasons” in 1987 and 1998.2 Former federal employees who have completed at least five years of service under CSRS and are rehired after a break in service of less than one year can either join FERS or participate in both CSRS and Social Security through the “CSRS offset plan.” Under this plan, 6.2% of the employee payroll contribution and an equal share of the employer contribution are paid into Social Security. In retirement, these employees’ CSRS annuities are reduced (“offset”) by the amount of the Social Security benefit. Under FERS, workers who have completed at least 30 years of service can retire at the minimum retirement age. The minimum retirement was 55 for workers born before 1948, and it is scheduled to rise to 57 for those born in 1970 or later. Employees with 20 or more years of service can retire at age 60, and those with at least 5 years of service can retire at age 62. Federal employees and former employees who have completed at least ten (but fewer than 30) years of service can receive a reduced FERS pension benefit at the minimum retirement age. For those who choose this option, the FERS pension benefit is permanently reduced by 5% multiplied by the number of years between the worker’s age at retirement and age 62. For example, the pension of a federal employee who retires at age 56 with fewer than 30 years of service would be permanently reduced by 5% multiplied by six, or 30%. 1 In a defined benefit plan, the amount of the retirement benefit is based on an employee’s salary and number of years of service. With each year of service, a worker accrues a benefit equal to a fixed dollar amount or a percentage of pay. A defined contribution plan is like a savings account maintained on behalf of each participating employee. The amount of retirement benefits that a worker receives will depend on the balance in the account, which is the sum of contributions, plus interest, dividends, and capital gains (or losses). 2 P.L. 105-61 (Oct. 10, 1997) authorized an open season to be held from July through Dec. 1998, during which employees still enrolled in CSRS could transfer to FERS. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗȱ ȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ Under CSRS, the minimum retirement age is 55 for employees with 30 years of federal service, age 60 for those with 20 years of service, and 62 for employees with at least 5 years of service. CSRS has no provision for early retirement with a reduced benefit, except for special circumstances such as a reduction in force. Agencies undergoing a reduction in force can, with the approval of the Office of Personnel Management, offer retirement to employees age 50 or older with 20 or more years of service or at any age with 25 or more years of service. An employee under CSRS who is offered and accepts an offer of voluntary early retirement has his or her retirement annuity permanently reduced by 2% multiplied by the number of years between the worker’s age at retirement and age 55. Under both CSRS and FERS, the amount of an employee’s retirement annuity is based on the average of the individual’s highest three consecutive years of basic pay multiplied by their years of service and the rate at which benefits accrue for each year of service.3 Under FERS, this accrual rate is one percent of base pay per year. Workers with 20 years or more of service under FERS who work until at least age 62 are credited with an accrual rate of 1.1% for each year of service.4 For example, a worker covered by FERS who retires at 61 with 29 years of service will receive a FERS annuity equal to 29% of his high-3 average pay. Delaying retirement by one year would increase the annuity to 33% of high-3 average pay (30 X 1.1 = 33.0). Accrual rates are lower under FERS than under CSRS because employees covered by FERS also pay Social Security payroll taxes and earn Social Security retirement benefits. Under CSRS the benefit accrual rate increases with length of service. Workers accrue benefits equal to 1.5% of high-3 average pay for each of their first 5 years of service; 1.75% of high-3 pay for years 6 through 10; and 2.0% of high-3 pay for each year of service after the 10th year. This yields a pension equal to 56.25% of high-3 average pay after 30 years of federal service under CSRS. For all federal workers covered by FERS, the agency where they are employed contributes an amount equal to 1% of the employee’s base pay to the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP), even if the employee makes no voluntary contributions to the TSP. In 2007, workers covered by FERS or CSRS can contribute up to $15,500 to the TSP.5 Workers age 50 and older can contribute an additional $5,000 to the TSP. All contributions to the Thrift Savings Plan are made on a pre-tax basis, and neither the employee’s contribution nor any investment earnings are taxed until the money is withdrawn from the account. In addition, the first 5% of employee pay contributed to the TSP generates agency matching contributions for workers covered by FERS.6 Workers covered by CSRS may contribute to the TSP, but t they receive no matching contributions from their employing agency. 3 The calculation of “high-three” average pay is based on nominal or “current dollars” rather than indexed or “constant dollars.” 4 Because FERS coverage began in 1984, no federal workers will have 30 years of service exclusively under FERS until 2014. 5 Employee contributions to the TSP are subject to the annual limit on salary deferrals established under Internal Revenue Code § 402(g). 6 All employees covered by FERS receive “agency automatic contributions” of 1% of pay. Employee contributions are matched dollar-for-dollar on the first 3% of pay and at $.50 on the dollar on the next 2% of pay. Thus, the maximum agency contribution is 5% of pay. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Řȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ Ž’›Ž–Ž—ȱ˜ŸŽ›ŠŽȱ˜ȱž››Ž—ȱŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȱ Because enrollment in CSRS has been closed to new entrants since 1984, the proportion of federal workers covered by FERS has been rising and coverage under CSRS has been declining. (See Table 1.) FY1995 was the first year in which a majority of civilian federal employees (51%) were covered by FERS. During FY2004, 70% of federal employees were covered by FERS. Table 1. Retirement Systems Coverage of Federal Employees, by Fiscal Year Covered Active Employeesa FY2004 Percentage distribution FY2003 Percentage distribution FY2002 Percentage distribution FY2001 Percentage distribution FY2000 Percentage distribution FY1999 Percentage distribution FY1998 Percentage distribution FY1997 Percentage distribution FY1996 Percentage distribution FY1995 Percentage distribution FY1994 Percentage distribution CSRS FERS Total 795,000 1,875,000 2,670,000 29.8% 70.2 100 862,000 1,808,000 2,670,000 32.3 67.7 100 897,000 1,717,000 2,614,000 34.0 66.0 100 987,000 1,689,000 2,676,000 36.9 63.1 100 961,000 1,629,000 2,590,000 37.1 62.9 100 1,009,000 1,536,000 2,545,000 39.6 60.4 100 1,108,000 1,550,000 2,658,000 41.7 58.3 100 1,194,000 1,487,000 2,681,000 44.5 55.5 100 1,235,000 1,385,000 2,620,000 47.1 52.9 100 1,311,000 1,371,000 2,682,000 48.9 51.1 100 1,402,000 1,296,000 2,698,000 52.0 48.0 100 Office of Personnel Management. Includes U.S. Postal Service. Does not include employees on leave without pay. Source: a. ˜ŸŽ›ŠŽȱ˜ȱž››Ž—ȱ’Ÿ’•ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ——ž’Š—œȱ Although the majority of current federal employees are covered by FERS, most retired federal workers and their surviving spouses and dependents receive benefits from employment that was covered by CSRS. In FY2006, 89% of current annuitants were receiving pension benefits that were accrued under CSRS, while just 11% had retired under FERS. (See Table 2.) Under both ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ řȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ CSRS and FERS, employee and agency contributions are paid into—and pension annuities are paid from—the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. The number of FERS annuitants is comparatively small because the FERS is still a relatively new program when compared to the average length of a worker’s career. The program was established in 1987 and was made retroactive for all employees initially hired on or after January 1, 1984. Table 2. Retirement Plan Coverage of Civil Service Annuitants, FY2006 Employee annuitants CSRS FERS Total 1,578,713 249,803 1,828,516 86.3 13.7 100 596,887 23,867 620,754 96.2 3.8 100 2,175,600 273,670 2,449,270 88.8 11.2 100 Percentage Survivor annuitants Percentage Total annuitants Percentage Source: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ŠŽȱ˜ȱŽœ’Ž—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ’Ÿ’•ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ——ž’Š—œȱ More than 2.4 million people received civil service annuities in 2006, either as retired federal employees, surviving spouses, or surviving dependents. California had the largest number of annuitants with 216,965 and Vermont had the fewest with 4,126. Five states—California, Florida, Texas, Maryland, and Virginia—accounted for more than one-third of all civil service annuitants in 2006. Table 3. State of Residence of Civil Service Annuitants, 2006 State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Number of Annuitants Percent of National Total 57,774 7,072 50,615 24,486 216,965 45,152 14,526 8,002 43,494 165,944 77,795 24,540 13,002 65,207 2.4 0.3 2.1 1.0 8.8 1.8 0.6 0.3 1.8 6.8 3.2 1.0 0.5 2.7 Śȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ State Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Number of Annuitants Percent of National Total 34,840 19,780 23,691 32,072 25,444 13,467 149,090 44,171 40,438 26,399 24,545 51,879 11,503 13,108 20,671 11,783 55,270 26,604 96,697 65,299 6,014 73,417 48,205 31,535 106,095 8,988 40,933 9,295 42,647 157,707 33,907 4,126 137,789 62,817 16,066 25,079 5,463 1.4 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.0 0.5 6.1 1.8 1.6 1.1 1.0 2.1 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.5 2.3 1.1 3.9 2.7 0.2 3.0 2.0 1.3 4.3 0.4 1.7 0.4 1.7 6.4 1.4 0.2 5.6 2.6 0.7 1.0 0.2 śȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ State U.S. Territories Other countries Total Source: Number of Annuitants Percent of National Total 14,689 29,400 0.6 1.2 2,455,497 100 Office of Personnel Management. ŸŽ›ŠŽȱŽȱŠ—ȱŽŠ›œȱ˜ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱŠȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ More than 103,000 civilian federal employees (including U.S. Postal Service employees) retired during FY2006. (See Table 4.) Of this number, 75,551 (73%) were normal retirements7 and another 9,538 (9%) were voluntary early retirements. Under CSRS, normal retirement can occur as early as age 55 with 30 years of service. Under FERS, the minimum retirement age is increasing from 55 for workers born before 1948 to 57 for those born in 1970 or later. Under both programs, normal retirement can be taken at age 60 with 20 years of service or age 62 with 5 years of service. The average age of workers taking voluntary, normal retirement in 2006 was 60 for employees covered by CSRS and 63 for those covered by FERS. Workers taking normal retirement under CSRS in 2006 had completed an average of 34 years of service, while those retiring under FERS had an average of 19 years of service. More than 8,000 federal employees took voluntary early retirement in 2006. These workers were younger on average (54.3 years old) than those who took normal retirement, and their average length of service (27.7years) was slightly less than that of those who took normal retirement. Approximately 9% of all retirements among federal employees in 2006 were taken for reasons of disability. Disability retirees were, on average, 51 years old with 17 years of service. Involuntary retirements (such as those resulting from agency down-sizing) and retirements taken under other special circumstances accounted for 3% of all retirements by federal employees in 2006. ŸŽ›ŠŽȱ——ž’¢ȱ–˜ž—œȱž—Ž›ȱȱŠ—ȱȱ The average monthly annuity paid to all civilian federal employees who retired under CSRS in 2006 was $3,373, while new FERS annuitants received an average annuity of $1,137 per month. Employees retiring under CSRS received larger annuities than those covered by FERS both because of their longer average length of service and because CSRS was designed to provide an adequate retirement income from a single source. FERS was designed to provide a smaller annuity than CSRS for any given length of service and level of compensation because federal employees covered by FERS participate in Social Security and they also can elect to save for retirement on a pre-tax basis with agency matching contributions through the Thrift Savings Plan.8 Employees in FERS who retire at the minimum retirement age or older with 30 years of federal service are eligible to receive a supplement to their FERS annuity between their 7 Normal retirements include all retirements except disability retirements, voluntary early retirements, involuntary retirements, and special provision retirements. 8 In 2007, federal employees can contribute up to $15,500 of pay (pre-tax) to the TSP. Employees enrolled in FERS receive matching contributions up to a maximum of 5% of pay. Employees enrolled in CSRS do not receive matching contributions. For more information on the TSP, see CRS Report RL30387, Federal Employees' Retirement System: The Role of the Thrift Savings Plan, by Patrick Purcell. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Ŝȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ retirement and age 62. The supplement is approximately equal to the Social Security payments they will receive for their years of federal employment. (Employees with 20 years of service receive this supplement if they are at least age 60 at retirement.) . Number, Average Age and Years of Service, and Average Annuity of Civil Service Annuitants Who Retired in 2006 Table 4 Civilian Federal Retirements Normal Retirements CSRS FERSa Average or Total Number Average age at retirement Average years of service Average monthly annuity 53,277 60.1 34.0 $3,491 22,274 63.1 18.9 $937 75,551 61.0 29.5 $2,738 Number Average age at retirement Average years of service Average monthly annuity 2,349 53.0 26.2 $2,060 7,189 50.3 14.2 $1,376 9,538 51.0 17.2 $1,544 Number Average age at retirement Average years of service Average monthly annuity 1,992 55.9 30.0 $2,975 708 56.0 24.3 $1,364 2,700 55.9 28.5 $2,553 Number Average age at retirement Average years of service Average monthly annuity 6,307 54.0 28.8 $2,736 1,763 55.3 23.6 $1,295 8,070 54.3 27.7 $2,421 Number Average age at retirement Average years of service Average monthly annuity 3,415 54.8 30.4 $4,913 1,154 54.0 25.4 $3,529 4,569 54.6 29.1 $4,563 Number Average age at retirement Average years of service Average monthly annuity 68,844 59.0 32.6 $3,373 34,448 59.4 18.3 $1,137 103,292 59.1 27.8 $2,627 Disability Retirements Involuntary retirements Voluntary early retirements Special provision retirements Total retirements in 2006b Source: CRS analysis of data from the Office of Personnel Management. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŝȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ Employees covered by FERS also participate in Social Security. In January 2006, the average monthly Social Security benefit for workers retiring at age 62 was $1,035. b. Includes other, unclassified retirements. a. ŸŽ›ŠŽȱŽȱŠȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ˜ȱŽ ȱŽŽ›Š•ȱŽ’›ŽŽœǰȱ ŗşşŖȱ˜ȱŘŖŖŜȱ In 2006, the average age of federal employees taking normal retirement was 61, almost the same as in 1990. (See Table 5.) Over the period from 1990 to 2006, the average age of normal retirements was 61.2 The average age for all retirements in 2006 was 59, and the average for the period from 1990 to 2006 was 58.5. Federal agencies undergoing a major reorganization can request permission from the Office of Personnel Management to offer their employees voluntary early retirement or voluntary separation incentive pay (“buyouts”). Under voluntary early retirement, an employee can retire as early as age 50 with 20 years of service. Voluntary separation incentives are cash payments of up to $25,000 (before taxes) offered to employees who retire or otherwise separate from federal employment voluntarily. Because these incentives are generally offered to retirees who have not yet reached the combined age and years of service that are required for normal retirement, they tend to reduce the average age of those who retire in any given year. Table 5. Average Age at Retirement for New Federal Retirees, 1990 to 2006 Fiscal Year Average Age at Retirement All retirements Normal retirements Normal Retirements as a Percentage of All Retirements 1990 59.4 61.3 79.0 1994 58.1 61.8 56.8 1998 57.6 61.5 57.1 2002 58.1 60.6 67.6 2006 59.1 61.0 73.1 Office of Personnel Management. Note: Normal retirements include all retirements except disability retirements, voluntary early retirements, involuntary retirements, and special provision retirements. Source: ˜Š•ȱŠ—ȱŸŽ›ŠŽȱ——ž’¢ȱŠ¢–Ž—œȱ˜ȱŽ’›ŽŽœȱ Š—ȱž›Ÿ’Ÿ˜›œȱ’—ȱŘŖŖŜȱ The Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund paid annuities to 1.83 million retired federal employees and 621,000 survivor annuitants in FY2006. Of these beneficiaries, 2.175 million (89%) received benefits earned under CSRS and 274,000 (11%) received benefits under FERS. Employee annuitants under CSRS received an average monthly annuity of $2,452. Survivors of CSRS annuitants received an average monthly CSRS annuity of $1,189. Employee annuitants under FERS received payments, averaging $896 per month and the average survivor benefit under FERS was $375. As was noted earlier, FERS benefits are smaller than those under CSRS ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Şȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ both because employees covered by FERS have fewer years of service than workers who retired under CSRS, and because FERS benefits are intended to be supplemented by Social Security and the Thrift Savings Plan.9 Table 6.Total and Average Annuity Payments to Retirees and Survivors in 2006 (in thousands of dollars) Employee annuitants Percent of Total Mean monthly benefit Median monthly benefit Survivor annuitants Percent of Total Mean monthly benefit Median monthly benefit Total annuitants Percent of Total Source: CSRS FERS All Retirees and Survivors 1,578,713 249,803 1,828,516 86.3% 13.7% 100% $2,452 $2,152 $896 $617 $2,239 $1,977 596,887 23,867 620,754 96.2% 3.8% 100% $1,189 $1,053 $375 $284 $1,158 $1,022 2,175,600 273,670 2,449,270 88.8% 11.2% 100% Office of Personnel Management. ˜œȬ˜ȱ’Ÿ’—ȱ“žœ–Ž—œȱž—Ž›ȱȱŠ—ȱȱ Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for both CSRS and FERS are based on the rate of inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPIW). COLAs are determined by the percentage change in the average monthly CPI-W during the third quarter (July to September) of the current calendar year compared to the third quarter of the previous year. The “effective date” for COLAs is December, but they first appear in benefit checks issued in January. All CSRS retirees and survivors receive yearly COLAs equal to the annual percentage change in the CPI-W. Under FERS, COLAs are paid only to retired workers who are age 62 and older and to disabled and survivor beneficiaries of any age. COLAs paid under FERS are less than the rate of inflation whenever the increase in the CPI-W is greater than 2.0%. If the rate of inflation during the measurement period is between 2.0% and 3.0%, the FERS COLA is 2.0%. If inflation is greater than 3.0%, then the COLA for FERS benefits is equal to the CPI-W minus one percentage point.10 In January 2007, CSRS beneficiaries received a COLA of 3.3%, and FERS beneficiaries received a COLA of 2.3%. (See Table 7.) 9 In June 2006, the average monthly Social Security benefit among all retired workers was $1,007. The average monthly benefit for a surviving spouse was $954. 10 Workers who switched from CSRS to FERS receive a COLA that is weighted by the proportion of their federal service that was spent under each retirement system. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ şȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ Living Adjustments under CSRS and FERS Table 7. Cost-of- (in percent) Date Paid CSRS COLA FERS COLA Change in CPI from 3rd Qtr to 3rd Qtr 4.7% 5.4 3.7 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.1 1.3 2.4 3.5 2.6 1.4 2.1 2.7 4.1 3.3 3.7 4.4 2.7 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.3 2.0 2.5 2.0 1.4 2.0 2.0 3.1 2.3 4.7 5.4 3.7 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.1 1.3 2.4 3.5 2.6 1.4 2.1 2.7 4.1 3.3 January 1990 January 1991 January 1992 January 1993 April 1994 April 1995 April 1996 January 1997 January 1998 January 1999 January 2000 January 2001 January 2002 January 2003 January 2004 January 2005 January 2006 January 2007 Source: Office of Personnel Management. —Œ˜–ŽȱŠ—ȱ¡™Ž—’ž›Žœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’Ÿ’•ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Ž’›Ž–Ž—ȱŠ—ȱ’œŠ‹’•’¢ȱž—ǰȱŘŖŖŜȱ The Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund (CSRDF) ended FY2006 with a balance of $690 billion. By law, these assets are invested in special-issue U.S. Treasury bonds. The balance of the trust fund represents the amount of budget authority available to pay benefits under both CSRS and FERS. The fund’s balance at the end of 2006 was more than 12 times the value of the CSRS and FERS annuities paid from the fund that year. CSRDF receives income from several sources. Some of the fund’s income results from cash transactions. Other income comes from intra-governmental transfers. The largest cash transaction ($3.7 billion in 2006) consists of employee contributions to CSRS and FERS. These contributions are equal to 7.0% of base pay under CSRS and 0.8% of pay under FERS.11 Smaller 11 Under the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-33), employee contribution rates under CSRS and FERS rose by 0.25% in January 1999 and by a further 0.15% in January 2000. They were to increase by another 0.1% in January 2001 before reverting to their previous levels—7.0% under CSRS and 0.8% under FERS—after Dec. 31, 2002, but the (continued...) ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŖȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ cash payments are received from the District of Columbia to finance retirement benefits for its employees, and from additional cash contributions made by federal workers. These usually are former federal employees who are returning to government service and who had previously withdrawn their retirement contributions. The fund’s largest sources of income are (1) interest payments on the U.S. Treasury bonds it holds, (2) a payment from the general fund of the Treasury to make up for the insufficient funding of benefits accrued under CSRS, and (3) payments from federal agencies and the Postal Service on behalf of their employees.12 Agency contributions under CSRS are equal to 7.0% of payroll, and are supplemented by transfers from the general fund of the Treasury equal to approximately 10% of payroll. Agency contributions to FERS are required by law to be equal to the full actuarial cost of the program minus employee contributions. Agency contributions to FERS equal 11.2% of pay in 2006. These three sources of income are not cash transactions, but intra-governmental transfers which result in an increase in the fund’s budget authority as recorded in the accounts of the U.S. Treasury. The fund receives Treasury bonds as a record of this budget authority, which it redeems periodically as annuity payments come due.13 Expenditures from the retirement and disability fund consist mainly of payments to retired federal employees and their surviving spouses and dependents. Annuity payments totaled $57.5 billion in 2006, while payments to the estates of decedents and payments to separating employees accounted for another $318 million. Administrative expenses for the fund were $134 million, just 0.23% of expenditures. . Income and Expenditures of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, 2006-2008 Table 8 (amounts in millions) Beginning balance Income to the fund Cash transactions: Employee contributions District of Columbia Other employee deposits Intragovernmental transfers: Agency contributions Postal Service (total) FY2006 $660,773 FY2007 (est.) $689,954 FY2008 (est.) $701,757 $3,715 $50 $535 $4,010 $38 $636 $3,908 $33 $665 $13,819 $4,429 $14,072 $3,382 $15,714 $3,596 (...continued) increased contributions were repealed by P.L. 106-346. 12 At the time CSRS was created in 1920, it was common for private employers to pay some retirement benefits directly from their sales revenues rather than from reserves held in a pension fund. Because CSRS was not designed to be funded entirely from employee and agency contributions, some of the benefits accrued by workers covered by CSRS are financed through transfers from the general revenues of the U.S. Treasury. 13 See CRS Report RL30023, Federal Employee Retirement Programs: Budget and Trust Fund Issues, by Patrick Purcell. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŗȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ Interest on securities General fund receipts Re-employment offset FY2006 FY2007 (est.) FY2008 (est.) $36,432 $28,151 $33 $42,059 $32,105 $39 $43,725 $33,544 $40 Total income to the fund Expenditures from the fund $87,164 $96,341 $101,225 Employee and survivor annuities Refunds and payments to estates Administration Transfer to PSRHBFa -$57,531 -$318 -$134 -$61,145 -$302 -$91 -$63,821 -$307 -$104 ———— -$23,000 ———— Total expenditures from the fund -$57,983 -$84,538 -$64,232 Ending balance $689,954 $701,757 $738,750 Source: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, FY2008. a. This one-time payment to the Postal Service Retiree Health Benefits Fund was authorized by the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act (P.L. 109-435). ŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŠ•Š—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ’Ÿ’•ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Ž’›Ž–Ž—ȱŠ—ȱ’œŠ‹’•’¢ȱž—ȱ Between 1990 and 2006, the balance of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund rose from $236 billion to $690 billion, an increase of 192%. (See Table 9.) The balance of the fund has been rising partly because the civil service retirement programs are in a long-term transition from pay-as-you-go financing under CSRS to advance-funding under FERS. For most of its history, CSRS benefits were funded on a pay-as-you-go basis with a small reserve equal to about one year of benefit payments to meet unexpected contingencies. Employee contributions and agency contributions were less than the actuarial value of the benefits that were accrued each year by federal employees. In 1969, P.L. 91-93 mandated annual payments to the fund from the general revenues of the U.S. Treasury to make up most of this shortfall.14 When Congress passed the legislation that created FERS in 1986, it required that the full actuarial value of benefits accrued each year by federal employees covered by the program (including the value of future COLAs) must be funded by the sum of employee and agency contributions. The Office of Personnel Management estimates that at some time in the 21st century, the trust fund will reach a steady state in which it holds sufficient budget authority to finance about 20 years of retirement and disability benefits. 14 The Office of Management and Budget has estimated that employee and agency contributions and the transfers from the general fund are sufficient to meet all of the actuarial costs of CSRS except for the increase in benefits represented by COLAs. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŘȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ Table 9. Income and Expenditures of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, 1990 to 2008 (in billions of dollars) Fiscal Year CSRDF Income CSRDF Expenditures Ending Balance 1990 $52.2 -$31.1 $235.6 1995 65.7 -38.4 366.2 1996 66.6 -39.8 393.0 1997 70.2 -41.7 421.5 1998 72.2 -43.1 450.7 1999 74.5 -43.9 481.3 2000 76.0 -45.2 512.1 2001 77.9 -47.4 542.6 2002 80.1 -49.0 573.7 2003 78.4 -50.4 601.7 2004 82.4 -52.3 631.9 2005 83.7 -54.8 660.8 2006 87.2 -58.0 690.0 2007a 96.3 -84.5 701.8 2008 101.2 -64.2 738.8 Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, various years. Expenditures for 2007 include a $23 billion payment to the Postal Service Retiree Health Fund. Source: a. ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱ’Ÿ’•ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ——ž’Š—œȱŠ—ȱ˜Š•ȱ ——ž’¢ȱŠ¢–Ž—œǰȱŗşŝŖȱ˜ȱŘŖŖŜȱ The number of people receiving civil service annuity payments has more than doubled since 1970, but the rate of increase has slowed since 1985. (See Table 10.) The rapid rise in the number of civil service annuitants from less than one million in 1970 to approximately two million in 1985 resulted from the increase in federal employment that occurred between 1940 and 1955. (See Table 11.) Throughout the 1930s, civilian federal employment (including postal employees) was less than one million. 1940 was the first year in which there were more than one million people in the federal workforce. By 1955, civilian federal employment had reached 2.4 million. There were brief upward spikes in federal employment during World War II and the Korean War, but relatively few of these war-time workers remained in service long enough to become vested in pension benefits. After 1955, civilian federal employment increased much more slowly. It reached 2.9 million in 1970, due in part to the war in Vietnam and the creation of such large-scale social programs as Medicare and Medicaid in the 1960s. The slower but still steady increase in the number of federal employees in the years between 1955 and 1970 had as one of its consequences the slower but steady increase in the number of civil service annuitants in the years since 1985. Between 1985 and 2005, the number of civil service annuitants rose from around 2 million to about 2.5 million. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗřȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ The Office of Management and Budget estimates that by 2012 there will be approximately 2.9 million people receiving federal civil service annuities. Expenditures for civil service annuities have grown by a greater percentage than the number of annuitants because they are affected not only by the number of people employed by the federal government, but also by increases in average life-span, growth in real wages, and inflation. Costof-living adjustments—which have been applied to civil service annuities since 1962—do not represent an increase in the real value of these annuities. They merely keep purchasing power from eroding due to the effects of inflation.15 Under current law, the real value of a civil service annuity either remains constant (CSRS) or declines (FERS) during retirement.16 Therefore, the increase in the real value of annuities has been the result of increases in the average value of the “high-3” average pay on which these annuities are based. Rates of increase in the high-3 average pay of retiring federal employees are in turn affected by adjustments to pay for each grade-and-step level; special pay increases such as locality pay adjustments; the distribution of federal employees among various grade-and-step levels over time; and average length of service (since each additional year of service tends to increase the high-3 average pay). The average real value of civil service annuities per annuitant can be expected to decline in the future as a growing number of new retirees are covered by FERS rather than CSRS. FERS annuities are supplemented by Social Security benefits and the Thrift Savings Plan. . Annuitants and Annuity Payments, 1970 to 2006 Table 10 Year Total Annuitants (thousands) Payments in Nominal Dollars (millions) Payments in Constant 2006 Dollars (millions) 1970 962 $2,746 $14,268 1975 1,391 7,048 26,410 1980 1,675 14,662 35,872 1981 1,779 17,597 39,027 1982 1,829 19,405 40,539 1983 1,869 20,717 41,933 1984 1,910 21,813 42,324 1985 1,971 23,012 43,115 1986 2,008 23,942 44,039 1987 2,055 25,713 45,632 1988 2,095 28,047 47,796 1989 2,122 29,134 47,366 1990 2,143 31,036 47,872 15 Federal tax revenues increase each year partly as a result of inflation. Income tax brackets are indexed in recognition of increases in personal income that result solely from inflation. 16 Some CSRS COLAs in the 1970s exceeded the rate of inflation because P.L. 91-93, enacted in 1969, called for COLAs of “CPI plus one percentage point.” The additional one percentage point was repealed by P.L. 94-440, enacted in 1976. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŚȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ Year Total Annuitants (thousands) Payments in Nominal Dollars (millions) Payments in Constant 2006 Dollars (millions) 1991 2,184 33,188 49,124 1992 2,185 33,545 48,202 1993 2,242 34,792 48,540 1994 2,263 36,254 49,317 1995 2,311 38,319 50,690 1996 2,333 39,670 50,972 1997 2,343 41,604 52,258 1998 2,361 42,943 53,112 1999 2,369 43,828 53,036 2000 2,372 45,072 52,767 2001 2,380 47,244 53,780 2002 2,383 48,838 54,729 2003 2,400 50,248 55,054 2004 2,446 52,122 55,626 2005 2,486 54,657 56,420 2006 2,453 57,816 57,816 2007a 2,471 61,408 60,086 2008a 2,488 64,090 61,360 2009a 2,518 66,492 62,290 2010a 2,541 68,725 62,996 2011a 2,564 70,815 63,514 2012a 2,587 72,977 64,044 Office of Personnel Management and Office of Management and Budget. Note: Depending on the day that the fiscal year begins, a year can have 11, 12, or 13 payments. a. Estimated number of annuitants and nominal outlays from the Budget of the United States. Source: ’Ÿ’•’Š—ȱŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢–Ž—ǰȱŗşŚŖȱ˜ȱŘŖŖŜȱ Since 1990, the number of civilian federal employees (including the U.S. Postal Service, which participates in both CSRS and FERS) has fallen from 3.1 million to 2.7 million. (See Table 11.) Civilian federal employment outside the Postal Service fell from 2.25 million in 1990 to 1.88 million in 2006, a decline of 16.4%. Reductions in federal employment yield immediate savings in payroll costs, and ultimately they will result in lower expenditures for retirement annuities for federal employees. In the near-term, however, reductions in the federal work force may result in a greater number of annuitants to the extent that the reductions are achieved by inducing employees to retire early. Employment in the Judicial Branch (34,000) exceeded employment in the Legislative Branch (29,000) in 2006. Since 1980, employment in the Legislative Branch has declined from 40,000 employees to 29,000 employees. Over the same period, employment in the Judicial Branch rose from 15,000 to 34,000. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗśȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ Table 11. Civilian Federal Employment, 1940 to 2006 (in thousands, as of September 30 each year) Legislative Judicial Executive Postal Branch Branch Branch Service 1940 20 2 758 312 1,091 1945 25 3 3,181 379 3,588 1950 23 4 1,449 485 1,961 1955 22 4 1,860 512 2,397 1960 23 5 1,808 563 2,398 1965 26 6 1,900 596 2,528 1970 31 7 2,158 726 2,922 1975 39 10 2,149 699 2,897 1980 40 15 2,161 660 2,876 1981 39 16 2,143 663 2,861 1982 39 16 2,110 660 2,825 1983 39 17 2,157 663 2,876 1984 39 17 2,171 683 2,910 1985 39 18 2,214 750 3,021 1986 38 19 2,193 774 3,024 1987 38 20 2,235 798 3,091 1988 38 22 2,222 832 3,114 1989 38 22 2,238 826 3,124 1990 38 24 2,250 817 3,129 1991 39 26 2,244 804 3,113 1992 39 28 2,227 792 3,086 1993 38 28 2,157 790 3,013 1994 35 28 2,085 823 2,971 1995 33 29 2,012 845 2,919 1996 32 30 1,934 852 2,848 1997 31 30 1,872 854 2,787 1998 30 32 1,856 871 2,789 1999 30 32 1,821 866 2,749 2000 31 32 1,778 861 2,702 2001 30 34 1,792 848 2,704 2002 31 35 1,818 811 2,695 2003 31 34 1,867 799 2,731 Year ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Total ŗŜȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ȱ Legislative Judicial Executive Postal Branch Branch Branch Service 2004 30 34 1,882 768 2,714 2005 31 34 1,872 764 2,701 2006 29 34 1,880 757 2,700 Year Total Office of Personnel Management. Note: Table shows total persons employed, including part-time. Source: Žȱ’œ›’‹ž’˜—ȱ˜ȱ¡ŽŒž’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȱ Employees of the federal government are older on average than workers in the private sector. Forty percent of employees in the Executive branch were under age 45 in 2004. Eighteen percent were between the ages of 45 and 49, and 42% were age 50 or older. (See Table 12.) In contrast, according to data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, 63% of all wage and salary workers in the private sector were under age 45 in 2004. Twelve percent of private sector employees were ages 45 to 49, and 25% were age 50 or older.17 Under CSRS and FERS, an employee can retire with an immediate, unreduced annuity at age 55 (CSRS) or 56 (FERS) with 30 years of service or at age 60 with 20 years of service. About 37% of federal employees will reach age 55 within 10 years, but not all of them will have 30 years of service at that age. Of those who do, not all will retire immediately. The average age among all federal employees who retired in 2006 was 59. The average among those who took normal retirement—as opposed to early retirement or disability retirement, for example—was 61.18 . Age Distribution of Full-time, Permanent Employees Table 12 (employees in thousands, as of September 30, 2004) Age Under Age 45 45 -49 50 -54 55 -59 60 -64 65 or older Total Number of employees 657 291 315 242 94 33 1,632 Percent 40.3 17.8 19.3 14.8 5.8 2.1 100 Source: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. 17 CRS analysis of data from the Current Population Survey. Based on wage and salary workers employed in the private sector. 18 Retirements other than normal retirements include disability retirements, voluntary early retirements, involuntary retirements, special retirements for law enforcement officers and firefighters, and other unclassified retirements. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŝȱ ȱ ŽŽ›Š•ȱ–™•˜¢ŽŽœȂȱŽ’›Ž–Ž—ȱ¢œŽ–DZȱž––Š›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŒŽ—ȱ›Ž—œȱ ž‘˜›ȱ˜—ŠŒȱ —˜›–Š’˜—ȱ Patrick Purcell Specialist in Income Security ppurcell@crs.loc.gov, 7-7571 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗŞȱ