Order Code RL33226 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data FY1989 to FY2006 Updated July 10, 2006 Justin Murray Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data FY1989 to FY2006 Summary This report provides summary information on emergency supplemental appropriations enacted after major disasters since 1989. More recently, Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005, as a Category 3 hurricane after passing over South Florida as a Category 1 hurricane on August 25, 2005. In response, on September 2, 2005, President Bush signed into law a $10.5 billion supplemental appropriations measure, P.L. 109-61, that provided disaster assistance funds for the affected areas. On September 9, 2005, the President signed into law a second supplemental measure totaling $51.8 billion in appropriations, P.L. 109-62. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) administers most of the funds appropriated in P.L. 109-61 and P.L. 109-62. On June 15, 2006, President Bush signed into law P.L. 109-234, legislation that contained provisions providing $19.3 billion in additional relief for victims of Gulf Coast hurricanes and other disasters. This report will be updated as events warrant. Contents Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Reallocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Selected CRS Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 List of Tables Table 1. Presidential Requests and Appropriations, Emergency Appropriations for Disaster Assistance, FY1989-FY2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data FY1989 to FY2006 Overview From FY1989 through FY2006, Congress appropriated more than $170 billion for disaster assistance in 29 appropriations measures, primarily supplemental appropriations acts, after significant catastrophes occurred in the United States.1 The median annual funding during the 17-year period of FY1989 to FY2006 was $2.0 billion; the mean annual funding, $10 billion. The mean funding for all 29 enacted emergency supplemental bills during the period was $5.9 billion.2 Disasters during FY2001 and FY2005 were especially costly. In FY2001, supplemental appropriations for disaster assistance totaled $20.3 billion, most of which went toward recovery following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In FY2005, after hurricanes devastated parts of Florida in the summer of 2004 and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Gulf Coast in the summer of 2005, supplemental appropriations for disaster assistance reached an all-time high of $73.4 billion — 43.2% of the total appropriated for disaster assistance for the entire 17-year period of FY1989 through FY2006. Three high-cost years, FY2001, FY2005, and FY2006, account for 66.5% of the 17-year total. On June 15, 2006, the President signed into law P.L. 109-234, legislation providing $94.52 billion in emergency FY2006 supplemental spending for military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, foreign assistance in support of the war on terror and other international crises, additional relief for victims of Gulf Coast hurricanes, and other matters. The legislation provides $19.3 billion in additional relief for victims of Gulf Coast hurricanes and other disasters. Included in this total is $5.2 billion for Community Development Block Grants. The measure appropriates $3.7 billion for levee repair and flood control projects.3 1 This amount does not include disaster assistance funding made available through regular annual appropriations legislation (with one exception in FY2000 after Hurricane Floyd) or funding enacted for agricultural disasters. For information on emergency agriculture funding, see CRS Report RL31095, Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006, by Ralph Chite. 2 Mean annual funding reflects the total funding for the period divided by 17, representing each of the 17 fiscal years in FY1989-FY2006. The mean funding for the set of all of the enacted bills reflects the total funding for the period divided by the total number of 29 enacted measures. 3 For additional details on P.L. 109-234, The Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act (continued...) CRS-2 This report provides summary information on emergency supplemental appropriations legislation enacted since 1989 after significant catastrophes. The data in this report include funds appropriated to the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as well as funds appropriated to other agencies.4 Emergency assistance funding includes appropriations for disaster relief, repair of federal facilities, and hazard mitigation activities oriented toward reducing the affects of future disasters. DRF appropriations are obligated for all major disasters and emergencies issued under the Stafford Act,5 not only those significant events that lead to supplemental appropriations. Counterterrorism, law enforcement, and national security appropriations are not included in the emergency assistance compilation. As reflected in Table 1 below, most supplemental appropriations were enacted as stand-alone legislation. However, in some instances, emergency disaster relief funding was enacted as part of regular appropriations measures, continuing appropriations acts (continuing resolutions), or in omnibus appropriations legislation. Requested funding levels noted in the third column of the table reflect House Appropriations Committee data on total requested funding for the entire enacted bill. Where possible, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) data taken from correspondence to Congress requesting emergency supplemental funding is used to identify dates of Administration requests for supplemental funding.6 Reallocations Complications associated with rebuilding and recovery in the Gulf Coast states slowed reconstruction normally funded through the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). On October 28, 2005, the President submitted to Congress a request to reallocate $17.1 billion previously appropriated in P.L. 109-61 and P.L. 109-62 “to undertake response and recovery activities in the affected regions that cannot be funded by 3 (...continued) for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006 see CRS Report RL33298, FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Katrina Hurricane Relief, coordinated by Paul Irwin and Larry Nowels. 4 Disaster relief funding allocated in P.L. 107-117 was not included in the Table 1 below because it was an allocation of funding appropriated in P.L. 107-38. The majority of federal emergency assistance funding listed in this report was provided through the Disaster Relief Fund. More information on the emergency funding provided to the DRF appears in CRS Report RL33053, Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities and Funding, by Keith Bea. 5 The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. 6 The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) website on Supplementals, Amendments, and Releases [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/amendments.htm] contains a list of the presidential submission transmittals and estimates from calendar year 2003 to the present. Calendar year OMB 2004 submissions and estimates are available at [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/04amendments.htm]; calendar year OMB 2003 submissions and estimates are available at [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/ 03amendments.htm]. CRS-3 FEMA ...,” primarily for the repair and replacement of federal facilities. To address concerns about the cost of the federal response, the President also submitted that same day a budget amendment that sought the rescission of “$2.3 billion from lowerpriority federal programs and excess funds.” Through the FY2006 Department of Defense (DOD) appropriations legislation (P.L. 109-148), the total amount of redirected funding Congress agreed to was approximately $29 billion. The amount was approximately $12 billion more than the President’s $17.1 billion request for redirected funds.7 Table 1. Presidential Requests and Appropriations, Emergency Appropriations for Disaster Assistance, FY1989-FY2006 (nominal dollars in thousands) Fiscal Year Disaster Event and Date of Major Disaster Declarationa Administration Request, by Date and Amountb Date Signed into Law and P.L. Number Total Appropriation Emergency Assistance Funding and Percentage of Appropriation 2006 Hurricane Katrina Aug. 29, 2005 Feb. 16, 2006 $19,800,000 June 15, 2006 P.L. 109-234 $94,520,000 $19,340,000 20.4% 2005 Hurricane Katrina Aug. 29, 2005 Sept. 7, 2005 $51,800,000 c Sept. 8, 2005 P.L. 109-62 $51,800,000 $51,800,000 100% 2005 Hurricane Katrina Aug. 29, 2005 Sept. 1, 2005 $10,500,000 Sept. 2, 2005 P.L. 109-61 $10,500,000 $10,500,000 100% 2005 Hurricanes Ivan, Jeanne Sept. 1, 2004 Sept. 14, 2004 $3,100,000 Oct. 13, 2004 P.L. 108-324 $14,500,000 $11,103,887 76.6% 2004 Hurricanes Charley, Frances Sept. 1, 2004 Sept. 6, 2004 $2,000,000 Sept. 8, 2004 P.L. 108-303 $2,000,000 $2,000,000 100% 2004 Wildfires various dates Aug. 8, 2004 P.L. 108-287 $417,500,000 $500,000 0.12% 2004 Hurricane Isabel Sept. 18, 2003 $87,000,000 Sept. 17, 2003e Nov. 6, 2003 P.L. 108-106 $87,500,000 $813,000 0.93% 2003 Storms various 2003 dates July 7, 2003 (continued from $1,900,000 request below) Sept. 30, 2003 P.L. 108-83 $3,500,000 $820,700 23.4% 2003 Tornados May 6, 2003 July 7, 2003 $1,900,000 Aug. 8, 2003 P.L. 108-69 $983,600 $983,600 100% 2002 Terrorist attacks Sept. 11, 2001 Mar. 21, 2002 $27,100,000 Aug. 2, 2002 P.L. 107-206 $26,600,000 $6,167,600 23.2% 7 —d For more details on the “reallocation” of funding in P.L. 109-148, see CRS Report RS22239, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief, by Keith Bea. CRS-4 Fiscal Year Disaster Event and Date of Major Disaster Declarationa Emergency Assistance Funding and Percentage of Appropriation Administration Request, by Date and Amountb Date Signed into Law and P.L. Number Sept. 12, 2001 $20,000,000 Sept. 18, 2001 P.L. 107-38 $40,000,000f $20,000,000 50% July 24, 2001 P.L. 107-20 $8,980,000 $365,700 4.9% Oct. 20, 1999 P.L. 106-74 $99,500,000 $2,480,425 2.5% May 21, 1999 P.L. 106-31 $13,100,000 $1,296,723 9.9% Total Appropriation 2001 Terrorist attacks Sept. 11, 2001 2001 Nisqually Earthquake 2000 Hurricane Floyd Sept. 16, 1999 1999 Tornados various dates 1999 Hurricanes Georges, Bonnie flooding various dates $7,780,000j Oct. 21, 1998 P.L. 105-277 $21,000,000 $1,830,977 8.7% 1998 El Niño floods Feb. 9, 1998 Mar. 24, 1998 $22,560,000 May 1, 1998 P.L. 105-174 $6,006,000 $2,602,173 43.3% 1997 Dakotas flooding Apr. 7, 1997 Mar. 19, 1997 $3,480,000 June 12, 1997 P.L. 105-18 $9,163,000 $5,863,883 64% 1995 Oklahoma City bombing Apr. 25, 1995 July 27, 1995 P.L. 104-19 $7,453,000 $6,599,531 88.6% 1995 Northridge Earthquake, Tropical Storm Alberto various dates $90,100,000l Sept. 28, 1994 P.L. 103-327 $90,100,000 $417,500m 0.46% 1994 Midwest floods, CA fires and Northridge earthquake Jan. 17, 1994 Sept. 28, 1994 $11,430,000 Feb. 12, 1994 P.L. 103-211 $11,535,000 $8,837,952 76.6% 1993 Midwest floods/ June 11, 1993 July 14, 1993 $3,980,000 Aug. 12, 1993 P.L. 103-75 $4,411,000 $3,494,750 79.2% 1993 Hurricanes Andrew, Iniki various dates July 2, 1993 P.L. 103-50 $3,500,000 $52,345 1.5% 1992 Hurricanes Andrew, Iniki Aug. 24, 1992 Sept. 23, 1992 P.L. 102-368 $12,775,00 $5,767,116 45.1% 1992 L.A. riots/Chicago flood various dates June 22, 1992 P.L. 102-302 $1,191,000 $ 469,650 39.4% g Sept. 21, 1999 $97,500h i k n Sept. 8, 1992 $6,530,000 o CRS-5 Fiscal Year Disaster Event and Date of Major Disaster Declarationa 1992 Hurricane Bob various dates 1990 Hurricane Hugo/Exxon Valdez various dates 1990 Hurricane Hugo Loma Prieta Earthquake Oct. 18, 1989 1989 Hurricane Hugo Sept. 20, 1989 1989 Fires on federal lands various dates Emergency Assistance Funding and Percentage of Appropriation Administration Request, by Date and Amountb Date Signed into Law and P.L. Number June 28, 1991 $693,000 Dec. 12, 1991 P.L.102-229 $6,849,000 $943,000 13.8% May 25, 1990 P.L. 101-302 $4,300,000 $670,412 15.6% Oct. 26, 1989 P.L. 101-130 $ 2,850,000 $2,850,000 100% Sept. 29, 1989 P.L. 101-100 $1,108,000 $1,108,000 100% June 30, 1989 P.L. 101-45 $3,564,000 $348,969 9.8% p q r s Total Appropriation Sources: Supplemental funding totals based on compiled CRS data on Emergency Appropriations After Disasters, FY1989FY2005. Other supplemental funding totals obtained from Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Supplemental Appropriations series, including “CBO Data on Supplemental Budget Authority for the 2000s” available at [http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/66xx/ doc6630/SuppApprop.pdf], Supplemental Appropriations in the 1990s [http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/27xx/doc2768/Report. pdf]. Totals for Administration requests were obtained from OMB correspondence to Congress (see footnote above) and from the House Appropriations Committee Budget Estimates volumes, Table VIIIa. Editions for recent Congresses (through the 107th) are available on the Government Printing Office GPO Access Congressional Documents site at [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ serialset/cdocuments/budgets.html]. a. Data in this column represent the date the President issued a major disaster declaration for the disaster that appeared to be the primary catalyst for the supplemental appropriations legislation. In a series of disasters (such as the Midwest floods of 1993), this date represents the first of several declarations associated with that particular disaster. In some instances, identifying which disasters were primarily associated with consideration of the supplemental appropriations is not possible. b. Data in this column represent the date the President submitted a request to Congress for supplemental funds. In some instances funding was not requested by the White House but was included by Congress in regular appropriations measures. c. On October 28, 2005, the President submitted to Congress a request to “reallocate” $17.1 billion previously appropriated for response and recovery activities that can not be funded by FEMA.” See [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/ amendments/rescission_package_10_28_05.pdf]. Congress modified this request by redirecting roughly $12 billion to the request in provisions in P.L.109-148, the FY2006 Department of Defense Appropriations Act, enacted on December 30, 2005. This action does not represent new appropriations because the funding was derived from the two supplemental statutes, as well as from government-wide rescissions, the largest of which was approximately $23.9 billion in FEMA funding. For more detailed information, see CRS Report RS22239, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief, by Keith Bea. d. FY2004 supplemental funds to meet wildfire suppression requirements were included in the FY2005 Department of Defense Appropriations Act, P.L. 108-287. For more information on the statute, see CRS Report RL32783, FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan, Tsunami Relief, and Other Activities, by Amy Belasco and Larry Nowels. e. The President submitted a supplemental request of $87 billion for ongoing military operations and for reconstruction assistance in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. During conference on H.R. 3289 (P.L. 108-106, the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense and for the Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan Act, 2004), $500 CRS-6 million for FEMA for disaster relief for Hurricane Isabel and the California wildfires was added to the legislation, bringing the total enacted funding for P.L. 108-106 to $87.5 billion. f. P.L. 107-117 allocated funds appropriated in P.L. 107-38, which was enacted shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Under P.L. 107-38, $20 billion was available immediately, whereas the remaining $20 billion became available when allocated in P.L. 107-117, enacted on January 10, 2002. $11.579 billion of the second half of the $40 billion was provided for emergency disaster assistance. g. An OMB supplemental request for the Nisqually earthquake could not be identified. h. The appropriations associated with Hurricane Floyd were not supplemental appropriations but were incorporated into the regular FY2000 appropriations legislation, P.L. 106-74, Department of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000. These data are included because Congress increased FY2000 DRF funding primarily in response to Hurricane Floyd. i. An initial administration request of $687 million was submitted on February 16, 1999 (see discussion in H.Rept. 106-064, p. 7) for relief funding for Hurricanes Georges and Bonnie, but additional emergency disaster funding was added to the legislation to address tornado damage and other natural disasters during 1999. j. Emergency relief funding for flooding caused by Hurricanes Georges and Bonnie was included in P.L. 105-277, the FY2000 Consolidated Appropriations Act. k. P.L. 103-211 provided $11.53 billion in DRF appropriations largely in response to the Northridge earthquake in California. See White House press release from FEMA Director James Lee Witt on January 12, 1995, [http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/ archives/whitehouse-papers/1995/Jan/1995-01-12-fema-director-witt-on-california-flood-relief.text], visited on November 3, 2005. Administration supplemental request correspondence to Congress for subsequent funding for Northridge and Oklahoma City could not be identified. l. An OMB supplemental request or requested Administration funding level for Tropical Storm Alberto could not be identified. Tropical Storm Alberto disaster funding was included in P.L. 103-327, the FY1995 Department of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act. m. The CBO scored supplemental funding as $357.0 million. n. An OMB supplemental request for Hurricanes Andrew and Iniki could not be identified. o. An OMB supplemental request for the Los Angeles riots and Chicago flood could not be identified. p. An OMB supplemental request for Hurricane Hugo and the Exxon Valdez incident could not be identified. q. No OMB request for this funding could be identified. Disaster funding in P.L. 101-130 was enacted as a continuing resolution, which amended the previous continuing resolution enacted as P.L. 101-100 to extend its provision until November 15, 1989. r. No request could be identified. s. An OMB supplemental request for the 1989 fires on federal lands or the requested Administration funding level could not be identified. CRS-7 Selected CRS Reports CRS Report RL33330, Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery, by Eugene Boyd. CRS Report RL31999, Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations, by Keith Bea. CRS Report RS22239, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief, by Keith Bea. CRS Report RL33053, Federal Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities and Funding, by Keith Bea. CRS Report RL33298, FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Katrina Hurricane Relief, coordinated by Paul Irwin and Larry Nowels. CRS Report RL32783, FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan, Tsunami Relief, and Other Activities, by Amy Belasco and Larry Nowels. CRS Report RL32581, Supplemental Appropriations for the 2004 Hurricanes and Other Disasters, by Keith Bea and Ralph M. Chite.