Order Code RL32492 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Updated July 13, 2005 Hannah Fischer Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress War Casualty Lists and Statistics Summary This report is written in response to numerous requests for war casualty statistics and lists of war dead. It provides tables, compiled by sources at the Department of Defense, indicating the number of casualties among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions. Wars covered include the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam Conflict, and the Persian Gulf War. Military operations covered include the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission, Lebanon Peacekeeping, Urgent Fury in Grenada, Just Cause in Panama, Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Restore Hope in Somalia, Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and the ongoing Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. For the more recent conflicts, starting with the Korean War, more detailed information on types of casualties, and when available, demographics have been included. This report also cites sources of published lists of military personnel killed in principal wars and combat actions. This report will be updated as events warrant. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Additional Sources of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Selected Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Additional Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 List of Tables Table 1. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths — Selected Military Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 3. Active Duty Military Deaths — Race/Ethnicity Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 4. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2004, Part I, Total Military Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2004, Part II, Cause of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 6. Korean War — Casualty Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 7. Vietnam Casualty Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 8. Persian Gulf War — Casualty Summary Desert Shield/ Desert Storm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 9. Global War on Terrorism — Operation Enduring Freedom by Casualty Category Within Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table10. Operation Enduring Freedom, Demographics of Military Deaths . . . . 14 Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action . . . . . . . . 15 Table 12. War on Terrorism — Operation Iraqi Freedom, By Casualty Category Within Type, March 19, 2003 - June 25, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 13. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, March 19, 2003 - April 30, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, May 1, 2003 - June 25, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Wounded In Action, March 19, 2003 - June 25, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 War Casualty Lists and Statistics Introduction This report is written in response to numerous requests for war casualty statistics and lists of war dead. It provides tables, compiled by sources at the Department of Defense, indicating the number of fatalities and numbers of wounded among American military personnel serving in principal wars and combat actions from the Revolutionary War to the current Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (operations in Afghanistan and related conflicts). A review of the composite data reveals the following. ! During the period between the Revolutionary War and the Persian Gulf War, it was the Civil War that produced the most American fatalities, when Union statistics and Confederate estimates are taken into account. ! World War II was the first war in which there were more battle deaths than deaths from other causes such as accidents, disease, and infections. ! With a total of 382 in-theater deaths, 147 of which were battle deaths, the Persian Gulf War was the least costly in terms of fatalities (see Table 1). ! The ongoing Operation Iraqi Freedom to date has produced more than four times the number of in-theater deaths than the Persian Gulf War (which lasted seven months). The casualty statistics for wars long ended are updated periodically, sometimes yearly. This almost always reflects the identification of remains of persons previously listed as missing in action and those persons’ reclassification as dead. Other reasons, much rarer, include the discovery of errors in casualty records for individuals or categories of people. CRS-2 Table 1. Principal Wars in Which the United States Participated: U.S. Military Personnel Serving and Casualties Casualtiesa War/ Conflict Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds Not Mortalb Revolutionary Warc Total — 4,435 4,435 — 6,188 1775-1783 Army — 4,044 4,044 — 6,004 Navy — 342 342 — 114 Marines — 49 49 — 70 War of 1812d Total 286,730 2,260 2,260 — 4,505 1812-1815 Army — 1,950 1,950 — 4,000 Navy — 265 265 — 439 Marines — 45 45 — 66 Mexican Ward Total 78,718 13,283 1,733 11,550 4,152 1846-1848 Army — 13,271 1,721 11,550 4,102 Navy — 1 1 — 3 Marines — 11 11 — 47 Civil War Total 2,213,363 364,511 140,414 224,097 281,881 (Union Forces Only)d Army 2,128,948 359,528 138,154 221,374 280,040 1861-1865e Navy — 4,523 2,112 2,411 1,710 Marines 84,415 460 148 312 131 Total 306,760 2,446 385 2,061 1,662 Army f 280,564 2,430 369 2,061 1,594 Navy 22,875 10 10 — 47 Marines 3,321 6 6 — 21 Total 4,734,991 116,516 53,402 63,114 204,002 Armyg 4,057,101 106,378 50,510 55,868 193,663 Navy 599,051 7,287 431 6,856 819 Marines 78,839 2,851 2,461 390 9,520 Total 16,112,566 405,399 291,557 113,842 671,846 Armyi 11,260,000 318,274 234,874 83,400 565,861 SpanishAmerican War World War I 1917-1918 World War II 1941-1946h CRS-3 Casualtiesa War/ Conflict Branch of Service Number Serving Total Deaths Battle Deaths Other Deaths Wounds Not Mortalb Navy j 4,183,466 62,614 36,950 25,664 37,778 Marines 669,100 24,511 19,733 4,778 68,207 Korean War Total 5,720,000 36,574 33,741 2,833 103,284 1950-1953k Army 2,834,000 29,856 27,731 2,125 77,596 Navy 1,177,000 658 506 152 1,576 Marines 424,000 4,508 4,266 242 23,744 Air Force 1,285,000 1,552 1,238 314 368 Vietnam Conflict Total 8,744,000 58,209 47,424 10,785 153,303 1964-1973l Army 4,368,000 38,218 30,957 7,261 96,802 Navy 1,842,000 2,565 1,631 934 4,178 Marines 794,000 14,840 13,091 1,749 51,392 Air Force 1,740,000 2,586 1,745 841 931 Persian Gulf War Total 2,225,000 382 147 235 467 1990-1991m Army 782,000 224 98 126 354 Navy 669,000 55 5 50 12 Marines 213,000 68 24 44 92 Air Force 561,000 35 20 15 9 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/WCPRINCIPAL.pdf] Historical Background and Notes from DOD: a. Data prior to World War I are based on incomplete records in many cases. Casualty data are confined to dead and wounded and, therefore, exclude personnel captured or missing in action who were subsequently returned to military control. b. Marine Corps data for World War II, the Spanish-American War, and prior wars represent the number of individuals wounded, whereas all other data in this column represent the total number (incidence) of wounds. c. Not known, but estimates range from 184,000 to 250,000. d. As reported by the Commissioner of Pensions in the annual report for the FY1903. e. Authoritative statistics for the Confederate forces are not available. Estimates of the number who served range from 600,000 to 1,500,000. The final report of the Provost Marshal General, 1863-1866, indicated 133,821Confederate deaths (74,524 battle and 59,297 other) based upon incomplete returns. In addition, an estimated 26,000 to 31,000 Confederate personnel died in Union prisons. f. Number serving covers the period April 21 to August 13, 1898, while dead and wounded data are for the period May 1, to August 31, 1898. Active hostilities ceased on August 13, 1898, but ratifications of the Treaty of Peace were not exchanged between the United States and Spain until April 11, 1899. g. Includes air service. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties suffered by American forces in northern Russia to August 25, 1919, and in Siberia to April 1, 1920. Other deaths cover the period April 1, 1917, to December 31, 1918. CRS-4 h. Data are for the period December 1, 1941, through December 31, 1946, when hostilities were officially terminated by Presidential Proclamation, but a few battle deaths or wounds not mortal were incurred after the Japanese acceptance of the Allied peace terms on August 14, 1945. Number serving from December 1, 1941, through August 31, 1945, were: Total 14,903,213; Army 10,420,000; Navy 3883,520; and Marine Corps 599,693. i. Includes Army air forces. j. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties incurred in October 1941due to hostile action. k. Worldwide military deaths during the Korean War totaled 54,246. In-theater casualty records are updated annually. l. Number serving covers the period August 5, 1964, (“Vietnam era” begins) through January 27, 1973 (date of cease-fire). Deaths include the period November 1, 1955, (commencement date for the Military Assistance Advisory Group) through May 15, 1975, (date last American servicemember left Southeast Asia). Wounds not mortal exclude 150,332 persons not requiring hospital care. Casualty records are updated annually, including current deaths that are directly attributed to combat in the Vietnam Conflict. m. Coast Guard numbers are included with Navy. Report does not include one POW (Speicher). Casualty records are updated annually. CRS-5 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths — Selected Military Operations Military Operation/Incident Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Total Iranian Hostage Rescue Non Hostile Mission April 25, 1980 0 0 5 3 8 Lebanon Peacekeeping August 25, 1982 February 26, 1984a Hostile 3 19 0 234 256 Non Hostile 5 2 0 2 9 Total 8 21 0 236 265 Hostile 11 4 0 3 18 Non Hostile 1 0 0 0 1 Total 12 4 0 3 19 Hostile 18 4 0 1 23 Desert Shield Non Hostile 21 36 9 18 84 Desert Storm Hostile 98 6 20 24 148 Non Hostile 105 14 6 26 151 Total 203 20 26 50 299 Desert Shield/Storm Total 224 56 35 68 383 Restore Hope/Unosom, Somalia, 1992-1994 Hostile 27 0 0 2 29 Non Hostile 4 0 8 2 14 Total 31 0 8 4 43 Non Hostile 3 0 0 1 4 Urgent Fury, Grenada, 1983 Just Cause, Panama, 1989 Casualty Type Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991 Uphold Democracy, Haiti, 1994-1996 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/table13.htm] a. Place of casualty, Lebanon CRS-6 Table 3. Active Duty Military Deaths — Race/Ethnicity Summary (as of March 15, 2003a) Race/ Ethnicity Number of Deaths Korean War F M Vietnam Conflict F Persian Gulf War M F Since 1980 (all) M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 104 226 3 12 151 Asian 241 139 1 15 332 3,075 7,241 63 472 5,998 1 24 366 Black or African American 3 Hispanic or Latino 306 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 575 349 14 18 322 More Than One Race or Unknown 2,853 204 3 37 590 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 148 229 2 2 120 White 2 29,272 8 49,802 12 280 1,250 24,699 Total 2 36,574 8 58,190 15 367 1,830 32,578 Percentages F M F M F M F M American Indian or Alaska Native 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.5 Asian 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.8 1.0 Black or African American 8.4 12.4 17.2 25.8 18.4 Hispanic or Latino 0.8 0.3 1.3 1.1 Hispanic or Latino-One or More Races 1.6 3.8 1.0 1.0 0.6 20.0 CRS-7 Race/ Ethnicity Korean War Vietnam Conflict Persian Gulf War Since 1980 (all) More Than One Race or Unknown 7.8 0.4 0.8 2.0 1.8 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.4 White 100.0 80.0 100.0 85.6 80.0 76.3 68.3 75.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/RACE-OMB-WC.pdf] a. March 15, 2003, is the date of the most current data available. CRS-8 Table 4. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2004, Part I, Total Military Personnel Calendar Year Active Dutya Full-Time (est.) Guard-Reserve Selected Reserve FTEb Total Military FTE Total Deaths 1980 2,050,758 22,000 86,872 2,159,630 2,392 1981 2,093,032 22,000 91,719 2,206,751 2,380 1982 2,112,609 41,000 97,458 2,251,067 2,318 1983 2,123,909 49,000 100,455 2,273,364 2,465 1984 2,138,339 55,000 104,583 2,297,922 1,999 1985 2,150,379 64,000 108,806 2,323,185 2,252 1986 2,177,845 69,000 113,010 2,359,855 1,984 1987 2,166,611 71,000 115,086 2,352,697 1,983 1988 2,121,659 72,000 115,836 2,309,495 1,819 1989 2,112,128 74,200 117,056 2,303,384 1,636 1990 2,046,806 74,250 115,321 2,236,377 1,508 1991 1,943,937 70,250 115,457 2,129,644 1,787 1992 1,773,996 67,850 111,491 1,953,337 1,293 1993 1,675,269 68,500 105,768 1,849,537 1,213 1994 1,581,649 65,000 99,833 1,746,482 1,075 1995 1,502,343 65,000 94,585 1,661,928 1,040 1996 1,456,266 65,000 92,044 1,613,310 974 1997 1,418,773 65,000 90,222 1,573,995 817 1998 1,381,034 65,000 88,149 1,534,183 826 1999 1,367,838 65,000 87,092 1,519,930 795 2000 1,372,352 65,000 86,524 1,523,876 774 2001 1,384,812 65,000 87,304 1,537,116 890 2002 1,411,200 66,000 86,866 1,564,066 1,007 2003 1,423,248 66,000 243,284 1,732,632 1,410 2004 1,411,287 66,000 234,629 1,711,916 1,887 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/Death_Rates.pdf] Prepared by Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division. As of July 8, 2005 (reflects addition of calendar years 2003 and 2004, updates to Selected Reserve FTE for several years, and updates to death/rate figures throughout.) a. Official Department of Defense end-strengths as of December 31 for military pay accounts. Excludes full time Guard and Reserve b. Full time equivalent (FTE) is based on official Department of Defense fiscal year end selected reserve strength (10% of the figure is used to estimate days on active duty) CRS-9 Table 5. U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, 1980 Through 2004, Part II, Cause of Death Calendar Year Total Deaths Accident Hostile Self Terrorist Homicide Illness Pending Unknown Action Inflicted Attack 1980 2,392 1,556 174 419 231 1981 2,380 1,524 145 457 241 13 1982 2,318 1,494 108 446 254 16 1983 2,465 1,413 18 115 419 218 263 19 1984 1,999 1,293 1 84 374 225 6 16 1985 2,252 1,476 111 363 275 5 22 1986 1,984 1,199 2 103 384 269 1987 1,983 1,172 37 104 383 260 2 25 1988 1,819 1,080 90 321 285 17 26 1989 1,636 1,000 58 294 224 1990 1,508 880 74 278 232 1991 1,787 931 112 308 256 1992 1,293 676 109 252 238 1 17 1993 1,213 632 86 221 236 29 9 1994 1,075 544 83 206 232 1995 1,040 538 67 174 250 7 4 1996 974 527 52 173 188 19 14 1997 817 433 42 170 159 1998 826 445 25 168 10 161 1999 795 436 37 149 13 145 2000 774 400 31 124 42 142 17 18 2001 890 422 42 175 60 118 55 18 2002 1,007 538 17 46 178 78 130 20 2003 1,410 560 344 41 232 17 197 19 2004 1,887 565 737 40 252 163 126 4 23 147 1 1 11 27 37 1 43 33 10 13 3 14 15 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/Death_Rates.pdf] Prepared by Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division. As of July 8, 2005 (reflects addition of calendar years 2003 and 2004, updates to Selected Reserve FTE for several years, and updates to death/rate figures throughout). CRS-10 Table 6. Korean War — Casualty Summary (as of June 15, 2004) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navy Killed in Action 23,615 19,715 209 3,319 372 Died of Wounds 2,460 1,887 14 532 27 Missing in ActionDeclared Dead 4,817 3,337 991 386 103 Captured-Declared Dead 2,849 2,792 24 29 4 33,741 27,731 1,238 4,267 505 8 4 4 Other Deaths 2,825 2,121 310 242 154 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 2,833 2,125 314 242 154 Total In-Theater Deaths 36,574 29,856 1,552 4,509 657 Total Non-Theater Deaths 17,672 7,277 5,532 1,019 3,844 Total Deaths 54,246 37,133 7,084 5,528 4,501 Killed in Action — No Remains 1,533 1,081 49 255 148 Died of Wounds — No Remains 22 22 Missing in ActionDeclared Dead — No Remains 4,578 3,302 809 373 94 Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains 1,901 1,860 13 25 3 8 4 4 Non-Hostile Other Deaths-No Remains 84 5 37 6 36 Total - No Remains 8,126 6,274 912 659 281 103,284 77,596 368 23,744 1,576 Number Serving Worldwideb 5,720,000 2,834,000 1,285,000 424,000 1,177,00 0 Number Serving InTheaterb 1,789,000 1,153,000 241,000 130,000 265,000 Total Hostile Deaths Missing - Presumed Dead Non-Hostile MissingPresumed Dead- No Remains Wounded -Not Mortal Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/CASUALTY/KOREA.pdf]. Prepared by Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. a. Inclusive dates are June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953. Casualty dates after the end date represent service members who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those service members who were involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead b. Estimated Figures CRS-11 Table 7. Vietnam Casualty Summary (as of June 15, 2004) Casualty Type Total Army Air Force Marines Navy Killed in Action 40,934 27,047 1,080 11,501 1,304 Died of Wounds 5,289 3,604 51 1,482 152 Missing in ActionDeclared Dead 1,085 261 589 98 137 Captured-Declared Dead 116 45 25 10 36 47,424 30,957 1,745 13,091 1,631 123 118 0 3 2 Other Deaths 10,662 7,143 841 1,746 932 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 10,785 7,261 841 1,749 934 Total In-Theater Deaths a 58,209 38,218 2,586 14,840 2,565 Killed in Action — No Remains 622 181 221 123 97 Missing in ActionDeclared Dead-No Remains 737 216 366 75 80 Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains 53 32 7 4 10 Non-Hostile MissingPresumed Dead — No Remains 97 92 3 2 336 70 30 37 199 1,845 591 624 242 388 153,303 96,802 931 51,392 4,178 Number Serving Worldwide b 8,744,000 4,368,000 1,740,000 794,000 1,842,000 Number Serving Southeast Asiab 3,403,000 2,276,000 385,000 513,000 229,000 Number Serving South Vietnamb 2,594,000 1,736,000 293,000 391,000 174,000 Total Hostile Deaths Missing -Presumed Dead Non-Hostile Other Deaths — No Remains Total - No Remains Wounded - Not Mortal Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/CASUALTY/vietnam.pdf]. Prepared by Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. a. Inclusive dates are November 1, 1955, to May 15, 1975. Casualty dates after the end date represent service members who were wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds and those service members who where involved in an incident during the period and were later declared dead. b. Estimated figures. CRS-12 Table 8. Persian Gulf War — Casualty Summary Desert Shield/Desert Storm (as of June 15, 2004) Total Army Air Force Marines Navyab Killed in Action 143 96 20 22 5 Died of Wounds 4 2 Total Hostile Deaths 147 98 Missing - Presumed Dead 12 Other Deaths 223 Total Non-Hostile Deaths Total In-Theater Deathsa Casualty Type 2 Missing in ActionDeclared Dead Captured-Declared Dead 20 24 5 2 8 2 126 13 36 48 235 126 15 44 50 382 224 35 68 55 Total Non-Theater Deaths 1,590 608 299 171 512 Total Deaths 1,972 832 334 239 567 Killed in Action — No Remains 2 2 Missing in Action — No Remains Captured-Declared Dead — No Remains Non-Hostile MissingPresumed Dead — No Remains 12 2 8 2 Total - No Remains 14 2 8 4 Wounded - Not Mortal 467 354 9 92 12 2,225,000 782,000 561,000 213,000 669,000 Serving In-Theater — Active Duty 584,342 271,654 70,741 90,866 151,081 Serving In-Theater — Recalled 110,208 78,512 11,666 12,660 7,370 Non-Hostile Other Deaths — No Remains Serving Worldwideb Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/GWSUM.pdf] a. Inclusive dates are August 7, 1990, to September 14, 1991. Any casualty date in the detailed records after the end date represents a Servicemember who was wounded during the period and subsequently died as a result of those wounds or a Servicemember who was in a missing status during a part of the war period and later declared dead. b. Estimated figures includes Coast Guard. Report does not include one POW (Speicher). CRS-13 Tables 9-11 provide statistics on casualties during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. Table 9 provides statistics on total casualties broken down by casualty type. Tables 10 and 11 provide statistics on deaths and casualties, respectively, broken down by demographics. Inclusive dates are October 7, 2001, to present. Casualties include servicemember deaths in or around Afghanistan, Republic of the Philippines, Southwest Asia, and other locations. However, virtually all OEF casualties have been incurred in Afghanistan. These statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and as all records are processed through the U.S. military system. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/]; click on “OIF/ OEF Casualty Update.” Table 9. Global War on Terrorism — Operation Enduring Freedom by Casualty Category Within Service (As of June 25, 2005) Casualty Type Total Army Navy Killed in Action 56 41 Died of Wounds 24 21 Marines 4 Air Force 5 6 1 2 Died While Missing In Action 0 Died While Captured 0 Total Hostile Deaths 80 62 4 6 8 Accident 86 57 5 11 13 Illness 10 7 2 1 Homicide 1 1 Self-Inflicted 11 7 3 1 Undetermined 2 1 1 Pending 4 4 Total Non-Hostile Deaths 114 76 11 14 13 Total In-Theater Deaths 194 138 15 20 21 Total Deaths 194 138 15 20 21 Wounded, Not Mortal 506 421 4 44 37 Total Non-Theater Deaths Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/CASUALTY/WOTSUM.PDF]. Prepared by Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. CRS-14 Table10. Operation Enduring Freedom, Demographics of Military Deaths (As of June 25, 2005) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 80 62 4 6 8 Nonhostile 114 76 11 14 13 Total 194 138 15 20 21 Male 188 135 15 19 19 6 3 1 2 Total 194 138 15 20 21 Officer 29 19 3 3 4 E5-E9 92 64 8 7 13 E1-E4 73 55 4 10 4 Total 194 138 15 20 21 <22 39 27 3 7 2 22-24 27 17 2 5 3 25-30 51 39 1 6 5 31-35 34 26 5 >35 43 29 4 2 8 Total 194 138 15 20 21 Active 157 104 15 18 20 Reserve 14 12 National Guard 23 22 194 138 Female Total 3 2 1 15 20 21 American Indian or Alaska Native 1 1 Asian 1 1 Black or African American 14 10 Hispanic or Latino 18 14 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 1 1 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 3 2 White 156 110 13 16 17 Total 194 138 15 20 21 2 2 2 2 1 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/OEFDEATHS.pdf]. Prepared by Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. CRS-15 Table 11. Operation Enduring Freedom, Military Wounded in Action (As of June 25, 2005) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 510 425 4 44 37 Total 510 425 4 44 37 Male 507 422 4 44 37 3 3 Total 510 425 4 44 37 Officer 60 50 5 5 E5-E9 245 208 3 6 28 E1-E4 205 167 1 33 4 Total 510 425 4 44 37 <22 98 77 1 18 2 22-24 99 87 11 1 25-30 154 129 1 9 15 31-35 84 66 2 4 12 >35 63 55 1 7 Not Available 12 11 1 510 425 American Indian or Alaska Native 2 1 Asian 2 2 Black or African American 24 23 Hispanic or Latino 26 23 1 1 1 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 28 22 3 2 1 40 34 44 37 Nonhostile Female Total Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 4 44 37 1 1 0 White 428 354 Total 510 425 4 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/OEFWIA.pdf]. Prepared by Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. CRS-16 Tables 12-15 provide statistics on casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing. Table 12 provides statistics on total casualties, broken down by type of casualties. Tables 13 and 14 provide statistics on deaths, broken down by demographics and divided between the period of major combat operations (March 19, 2003, through April 30, 2003) and the ongoing presence of U.S. forces in Iraq after the end of major combat operations (May 1, 2003, through present). Table 15 provides demographic statistics on servicemembers who have been wounded in action, from March 19, 2003 to the present. These statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and as all records are processed through the U.S. military system. Daily casualty summaries are available at DOD’s website at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/]; click on “OIF/OEF Casualty Update.” Table 12. War on Terrorism — Operation Iraqi Freedom, By Casualty Category Within Type, March 19, 2003 - June 25, 2005 (as of June 25, 2005) Casualty Type Killed in Action Total Navyc Army Marines Air Force 1,022 639 22 353 297 227 1 69 Died While Missing In Action 7 7 Died While Captured 2 2 Total Hostile Deaths 1,328 875 23 422 8 285 189 3 85 8 43 36 5 1 1 7 4 1 1 1 Self-Inflicted 35 31 1 3 Undetermined 2 2 31 24 1 5 1 403 286 11 95 11 1,731 1,161 34 517 19 1,731 1,161 34 517 19 13,189 8,514 280 4,218 177 Died of Wounds a Accident Illness Homicide Pendingb Total Non-Hostile Deaths Total In-Theater Deaths 8 Total Non-Theater Deaths Total Deaths Wounded -Not Mortal Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/OIF-Total.pdf]. Prepared by Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. a. Includes died of wounds where wounding occurred in theater and death occurred elsewhere. b. Pending means final category to be determined at a later date. c. Navy totals include one Coast Guard death. CRS-17 Table 13. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, March 19, 2003 - April 30, 2003 (as of June 25, 2005) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 109 47 3 56 3 30 19 1 9 1 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Male 138 65 4 65 4 1 1 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Officer 28 11 3 11 3 E5-E9 35 18 16 1 E1-E4 76 37 1 38 Total 139 66 4 65 <22 33 15 18 22-24 30 14 16 25-30 35 13 31-35 19 12 >35 22 12 1 7 2 Total 139 66 4 65 4 Active 126 61 3 59 3 Reserve 9 2 1 6 National Guard 4 3 139 66 American Indian or Alaska Native 2 2 Asian 3 1 Black or African American 23 15 1 7 Hispanic or Latino 23 9 1 13 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 2 1 1 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 2 1 1 White 84 37 2 41 4 Total 139 66 4 65 4 NonHostile Female Total 3 17 4 2 7 1 4 65 4 2 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/OIF-Deaths-Before.pdf]. Note: Through the end of major combat operations. Data subject to change, as of June 25, 2005. The President’s statement concerning the end of major combat operations in Iraq can be found in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, May 1, 2003, p. 516. CRS-18 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Military Deaths, May 1, 2003 - June 25, 2005 (as of June 25, 2005) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Navya Army Marines Air Force 1,219 828 20 366 5 373 267 10 86 10 Total 1,592 1,095 30 452 15 Male 1,554 1,061 28 450 15 38 34 2 2 1,592 1,095 30 452 15 Officer 160 122 3 31 4 E5-E9 498 416 11 63 8 E1-E4 934 557 16 358 3 Total 1,592 1,095 30 452 15 <22 483 272 4 204 3 22-24 376 240 4 132 25-30 391 294 7 84 6 31-35 151 124 7 18 2 >35 191 165 8 14 4 Total 1,592 1,095 30 452 15 Active 1,226 803 18 393 12 Reserve 140 66 12 59 3 National Guard 226 226 1,592 1,095 30 452 15 American Indian or Alaska Native 13 6 Asian 29 15 2 12 Black or African American 162 136 3 20 3 Hispanic or Latino 172 102 2 65 3 Multiple Races, pending or unknown 20 18 1 Native Hawaiian or Pacific islander 15 14 White 1,181 804 22 347 8 Total 1,592 1,095 30 452 15 Nonhostile Female Total Total 7 1 1 Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/OIF-Deaths-After.pdf]. Note: After the end of major combat operations. Data subject to change, as of June 25, 2005. a. Navy totals include one Coast Guard death. CRS-19 Table 15. Operation Iraqi Freedom — Wounded In Action, March 19, 2003 - June 25, 2005 (as of June 25, 2005) Casualty Type Hostile Totals Army Navy Marines Air Force 13,189 8,514 280 4,218 177 Total 13,189 8,514 280 4,218 177 Male 12,887 8,243 279 4,198 167 302 271 1 20 10 13,189 8,514 280 4,218 177 813 569 13 219 12 E5-E9 4,259 3,238 102 816 103 E1-E4 8,117 4,707 165 3,183 62 Total 13,189 8,514 280 4,218 177 <22 3,498 2,047 51 1,375 25 22-24 2,946 2,019 61 828 38 25-30 2,919 2,197 60 616 46 31-35 1,323 1,091 34 176 22 >35 1,268 1,056 48 118 46 Not Available 1,235 104 26 1,105 13,189 8,514 280 4,218 177 American Indian or Alaska Native 121 83 9 27 2 Asian 143 91 10 41 1 1,192 1,064 21 96 11 828 582 6 230 10 Multiple races, pending, or unknown 2,738 421 39 2,270 8 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 76 67 2 5 2 White 8,091 6,206 193 1,549 143 Total 13,189 8,514 280 4,218 177 Nonhostile Female Total Officer Total Black or African American Hispanic or Latino Source: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/oif-wounded-total.pdf] Notes: Data subject to change, as of June 25, 2005. CRS-20 Additional Sources of Statistics The Department of Defense Directorate of Information, Operations, and Reports (DIOR) provides detailed historical tables as well as annual statistics on active duty military deaths at [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/castop.htm]. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has published statistics derived from its Southeast Asia Combat Area Casualties Current File. This includes tables on Vietnam casualty data by branch of service, race, religion, state, and other categories at [http://www.archives.gov/research_room/research_topics/ vietnam_war_casualty_lists/statistics.html]. The Women in Military Service to America Memorial (WIMSA) presents casualty data on women in principal wars as researched by its historian’s office at [http://www.womensmemorial.org/historyandcollections/history/lrnmreqacasualty .html]. Selected Sources of Published Lists of Names of War Dead The Congressional Research Service also receives requests for lists of the names of war dead, often for use on memorials, tributes, or for other ceremonial purposes. This report cites the following sources of published lists of U.S. military personnel killed in principal wars and combat actions. World War II Army casualty lists for World War II are published in World War II Honor List of the Dead and Missing (U.S. War Department, 1946). Navy casualty lists are published in State Summary of War Casualties (U.S. Navy Department, 1946). Korean War and Vietnam War The National Archives has made state-level casualty lists from the Korean War and the Vietnam War available online at [http://www.archives.gov/research_room/ research_topics/korea_and_vietnam_casualties.html]. Operation Enduring Freedom The DIOR website lists the names of individuals killed in Operation Enduring Freedom at [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/oef_list_of_names.pdf]. Operation Iraqi Freedom The DIOR website lists the names of individuals killed in Operation Iraqi Freedom at [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/oif_list_of_names.pdf]. CRS-21 Wars Prior to World War II Lists of casualties that are not available from a central source may be obtained on a state level from each state’s Adjutant General’s office. The Adjutant General of each state is the military commander of the state’s national board. The following is a list of these offices. Alabama Major General C. Mark Bowen, 1720 Cong. W. L. Dickinson Dr., Montgomery, AL 36109, (334) 271-7400, mark.bowen@al.ngb.army.mil Alaska Major General Craig E. Campbell, P.O. Box 5800, Fort Richardson, AK 995050800, (907) 428-6003, craig.campbell@ak.ngb.army.mil American Samoa Attorney General Sialega Malaetasi Togafau, America Samoa Government, P.O. Box 7, Pago Pago, AS 96799, (684) 633-4163 Arizona Major General David P. Rataczak, Emergency and Military Affairs Department, 5636 East McDowell Road, Phoenix, AZ 85008, (602) 267-2701 Arkansas Major General Don C. Morrow, Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, AR 721999600, (501) 212-5001, don.morrow@ar.ngb.army.mil California Major General Thomas W. Eres, 9800 Goethe Road, Sacramento, CA 98526, (916) 854-3500 Colorado Major General Mason Whitney, 6848 South Revere Parkway, Centennial, CO 80112-6709, (720) 847-8801, mason.whitney@co.ngb.army.mil Connecticut Major General William A Cugno, National Guard Armory, 360 Broad Street, Hartford, CT 06105-3795, (860) 524-4953, william.cugno@ct.ngb.army.mil Delaware Major General Francis D. Vavala, USA, First Regiment Road, Wilmington, DE 19808-2191, (302) 326-7001, frank.vavala@de.ngb.army.mil District of Columbia Major General David F. Wherley, 2001 East Capitol Street, Washington, DC 20003, (202) 685-9798 Florida Major General Douglas Burnett, St. Francis Barracks, P.O. Box 1008, Saint Augustine, FL 32085-1008, (904) 823-0100 Georgia Brigadier General, David B. Poythress, 935 East Confederate Avenue, SE, Atlanta, GA 30316-0965, (404) 624-6001 Guam Brigadier General Don Goldhorn, Guam National Guard, 622 East Harmon, Industrial Park Road, Fort Juan Muna, Tamuning GU 96911-4421, (671) 4750802 Hawaii Major General Robert G. F. Lee, 3949 Diamond Head Road, Honolulu, HI 96816-4495, (808) 733-4246 CRS-22 Idaho Brigadier General Lawrence Lafrenz, 4040 West Guard Street, Boise, ID 83705-5004, (208) 422-5242 Illinois Major General Randal E. Thomas, Camp Lincoln, 1301 N. MacArthur Boulevard, Springfield, IL 62702-2399, (217) 761-3500, randal.e.thomas@il.ngb.army.mil Indiana Major General R. Martin Umbarger, Joint Forces Headquarters-Indiana, 2002 South Holt Road, Indianapolis, IN 46241-4839, (317) 247-3559 Iowa Major General Ron Dardis, Camp Dodge Office, 7700 NW Beaver Drive, Johnston, IA 50131-2416, (515) 252-4211, ron.dardis@ia.ngb.army.mil Kansas Major General Tod Bunting, 2800 South West Topeka Boulevard, Topeka, KS 66611, (785) 274-1001, tod.bunting@ks.ngb.army.mil Kentucky Major General Donald C. Storm, Boone National Guard Center, 100 Minuteman Parkway, Frankfort, KY 40601, (502) 607-1558 Louisiana Major General Bennett C. Landreneau, Jr., Building 54, Jackson Barracks, New Orleans, LA 70146-0330, (504) 278-8211 Maine Brigadier General John W. “Bill” Libby, Camp Keyes, Augusta, ME 04333-0033, (207) 626-4271, John.W.Libby@state.me.us Maryland Major General Bruce F. Tuxill, 5th Regiment Armory, 29th Division Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-2288, (410) 576-6097, bruce.tuxill@mdbalt.ang.af.mil Massachusetts Colonel Oliver J. Mason, 50 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757, (508) 233-6552 Michigan Major General Thomas Cutler, 2500 South Washington Avenue, Lansing, MI 48913-5101, (517) 483-5507 Minnesota Mr. Larry W. Shellito, 20 West 12th Street, St. Paul, MN 55155-2098, (651) 268-8924 Mississippi Major General Harold A. Cross, P.O. Box 5027, Jackson, MS 39296-5027, (601) 313-6232, harold.cross@ms.ngb.army.mil Missouri Brigadier General King E. Sidwell, 2302 Militia Drive, Jefferson City, MO 65101-1203, (573) 638-9710, tagmo@mo-arng.ngb.army.mil Montana Major General Randall Mosley, P.O. Box 4789, Helena, MT 59604-4789, (406) 324-3000, randall.mosley@mt.mgb.army.mil Nebraska Major General Roger Lempke, National Guard Center, 1300 Military Road, Lincoln, NE 68508-1090, (402) 309-7100, roger.lempke@ne.ngb.army.mil CRS-23 Nevada Major General Giles E Vanderhoof, 2460 Fairview Drive, Carson City, NV 89701-5502, (775) 887-7302, Giles.Vanderhoof@nvreno.ang.af.mil New Hampshire Brigadier General Kenneth R. Clark, Four Pembroke Road, Concord, NH 03301-5652, (603) 225-1200 New Jersey Major General Glenn K. Rieth, 101 Eggert Crossing Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648-2805, (609) 530-6956, glenn.reith@njdmava.state.nj.us New Mexico Brigadier General Kenny C. Montoya, 47 Bataan Boulevard, Santa Fe, NM 87508, (505) 474-1983, Kenny.Montoya@nm.ngb.army.mil New York Major General Thomas P. Maguire, Jr., 330 Old Niskayana Road, Latham, NY 12110-4325, (518) 786-4502 North Carolina Major General William E. Ingram, Jr., 4105 Reedy Creek Road, Raleigh, NC 27607-6410, (919) 664-6101 North Dakota Major General Michael J. Haugen, P.O. Box 5511, Bismarck, ND 58506-5511, (701) 333-2001, michael.haugen@nd.ngb.army.mil Ohio Major General Gregory Wayt, 2825 West Dublin Granville, Columbus, OH 43235-2789, (614) 336-7070 Oklahoma Major General Harry M. Wyatt, III, 3501 Military Circle, Oklahoma City, OK 73111-4398, (405) 228-5201, harry.wyatt@ok.ngb.army.mil Oregon Major General Fred Rees, 1776 Militia Way South East, Salem, OR 973095047, (503) 584-3991 Pennsylvania Major General Jessica L. Wright, Building S-O-47, Ft. Indiantown Gap, Annville, PA 17003-5002, (717) 861-8500 Puerto Rico Mr. Francisco Marquez, P.O. Box 9023786, San Juan, PR 00902-3786, (787) 289-1631, Francisco.Marquez@pr.ngb.army.mil Rhode Island Major General Reginald A. Centracchio, 645 New London Avenue, Cranston, RI 02920-3097, (401) 275-4102, reginald.centracchio@ri.ngb.army.mil South Carolina Major General Stanhope S. Spears, 1 National Guard Rd., Columbia, SC 29201-4766, (803) 806-4217, stanhope.spears@sc.ngb.army.mil South Dakota Major General Michael A. Gorman, 2823 West Main, Rapid City, SD 57702-8186, (605) 737-6702, michael.gorman@sd.ngb.army.mil Tennessee Major General Gus L. Hargett, Jr., 3041 Sidco Drive, Nashville, TN 37204-1502, (615) 313-3001, gus.hargett@tn.ngb.army.mil CRS-24 Texas Brigadier General Charles G. Rodriguez, P.O. Box 5218, Austin, TX 78763-5218, (512) 465-5006 U.S. Virgin Islands Brigadier General Eddy L. Charles, Sr., 4031 La Grande Princesse, Lot #1B Christiansted, St. Croix, VI 00820-4353, (340) 412-7711 Utah Major General Brian L. Tarbet, P.O. Box 1776, Draper, UT 84020-1776, (801) 523-4401, brian.tarbet@ut.ngb.army.mil Vermont Major General Martha T. Rainville, 789 Vermont National Guard Road, Colchester, VT 05446-3099, (802) 338-3124, martha.rainville@vt.ngb.army.mil Virginia Major General Claude A. Williams, Fort Pickett, Building 316, Blackstone, VA 23824-6316, (434) 298-6102, claude.williams@va.ngb.army.mil Washington Major General Timothy J. Lowenberg, Camp Murray, TA-20, Tacoma, WA 98430-5000, (253) 512-8201 West Virginia Major General Allen E. Tackett, 1703 Coonskin Drive, Charleston, WV 25311-1085, (304) 561-6316, allen.tackett@wv.ngb.army.mil Wisconsin Major General Albert Wilkening, 2400 Wright Street, Madison, WI 53708, (608) 242-3001, al.wilkening@wi.ngb.army.mil Wyoming Major General Edward L. Wright, 5500 Bishop Boulevard, Cheyenne, WY 82009-3320, edward.wright@wy.ngb.army.mil Source: The Leadership Library® on the Internet, a proprietary database, at [http://ldi.bvdep.com/default.asp]. Additional Reading Defenselink, the official website for the Department of Defense issues news releases every weekday that identify military personnel killed at [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/]. CRS Report RS21578, Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties, by Hannah Fischer. CRS Report RS22126, U.S. Military and Iraqi Casualty Statistics: Additional Numbers and Explanations, by Hannah Fischer. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures (Jefferson, NC, and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001).