Order Code RL31766 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations Updated June 27, 2005 Tom Coipuram, Jr. Information Research Specialist Knowledge Services Group Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations Summary The war with Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom), which began on March 19, 2003, to overthrow Saddam Hussein and change the regime was accomplished when the Iraqi regime fell on April 9, 2003. On June 28, 2004, the U.S.-led coalition transferred full sovereignty to the Iraqi interim government, and the Iraqi government is now running the day-to-day operations of the country. On January 30, 2005, elections were held in Iraq for a transitional National Assembly, and there are plans to establish a permanent government by December 15, 2005. Currently, the main focus is to stabilize the security situation, continue to assist in reconstruction efforts, and coordinate and provide humanitarian assistance to the Iraqi people. This report provides an annotated list of U.N. agencies that are involved in Iraq, key U.S. government agencies, and a sample list of major international and U.S.based aid organizations that are providing humanitarian assistance to Iraq. Internet links to the U.N. agencies and humanitarian aid organizations are also provided. For detailed discussion on humanitarian and reconstruction assistance in Iraq, see CRS Report RL31833, Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance. This report will be updated as events warrant. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 U.N. Agencies Currently Involved in Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Other U.N. Agencies — Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Key U.S. Government Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Selected Major International and Nongovernmental Organizations — Iraq . . . . . 6 Selected U.S.-Based Humanitarian Aid Organizations — Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations Introduction The war with Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom), which began on March 19, 2003, to overthrow Saddam Hussein and change the regime was accomplished when the Iraqi regime fell on April 9, 2003. However, coalition forces continue to combat insurgents and are currently attempting to stabilize the security situation in Iraq.1 On June 28, 2004, Ambassador L. Paul Bremer, who was the chief civil administrator in Iraq and head of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA), handed over the appropriate legal documents transferring full sovereignty to the interim government of Iraq. The transfer of power was sanctioned under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546,2 which approved U.S. and British plans to hand over power to Iraq on June 30, 2004. The CPA no longer exists, and the Iraqi government is now running the day-to-day operations of its country.3 On January 30, 2005, elections were held in Iraq for a transitional National Assembly, and on May 10, 2005, the National Assembly appointed a 55-member committee to begin drafting a constitution. If a permanent constitution is approved, elections to establish a government could take place by December 15, 2005.4 Currently, the main focus is to stabilize the security situation, and to assist in reconstruction efforts, and coordinate and provide humanitarian assistance to the Iraqi people. This report provides an annotated list of U.N. agencies involved in Iraq, key U.S. government agencies, and a sample list of major international and U.S.-based aid organizations that are providing humanitarian assistance to Iraq. 1 See CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance. 2 For full text, see [http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_resolutions04.html]. 3 State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs Fact Sheet, Iraq’s Transition to SelfGovernment, June 28, 2004. Available online at [http://www.state.gov/p/nea/rls/ 34057.htm]. 4 See CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance and CRS Report RS21968, Iraq: Post-Saddam National Elections. CRS-2 U.N. Agencies Currently Involved in Iraq Following is a list of U.N. agencies currently providing humanitarian assistance to Iraq. Internet addresses of the U.N. agencies as well as links to their Web pages on Iraq (if available) are provided. The U.N. Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) [http://www.uniraq.org/] The UNAMI was mandated by the U.N. Security Council Resolution 15005 on August 14, 2003, as a mission to oversee the U.N. Oil for Food program handover on November 21, 2003. Currently, this mission will help direct the United Nations’ future role and the various humanitarian and reconstruction programs in Iraq, and this site is a Web portal for U.N. agencies and NGOs working in Iraq [see HIC entry below] The Humanitarian Information Center (HIC) for Iraq [http://www.hiciraq.org/main.asp] The HIC is part of the humanitarian community working in Iraq and was established to provide information on relief efforts. For a list of U.N. agencies, government organizations, and NGOs working in Iraq, including contact information, click under “Who What Where”and “Contacts Database,” which are under the heading “Coordination.” The U.N. Mine Action Program — Iraq Update [http://www.mineaction.org/countries/countries_overview.cfm?country_id=920] The U.N. Mine Action program in Northern Iraq was established in 1997 to locate and remove mines and resolve mine-related problems such as raising public awareness and providing medical, rehabilitation, and vocational services to mine victims.6 UNICEF Programs in South and Central Iraq [http://www.unicef.org/emerg/iraq/index.html] UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) [http://www.unicef.org/] is an advocate for the protection of children’s rights and is tasked to help children living in poverty, reduce childhood death and illness in developing countries, and protect children in the midst of war and natural disasters. U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) in Iraq [http://www.iq.undp.org/] UNDP [http://www.undp.org/] is the United Nations’ global development network, helping countries build solutions to the challenges of democratic governance, poverty reduction, crisis prevention and recovery, energy and environment, information and communications technology, and HIV/AIDS. The United Nations Development Programme has been present in Iraq since 1976. 5 6 For full text, see [http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_resolutions03.html]. Current information on the U.N. Mine Action Program is available online at [http://www.mineaction.org/misc/dynamic_overview.cfm?did=11]. CRS-3 UNDP’s Electricity Network Rehabilitation Programme (ENRP) in Northern Iraq [http://www.enrp.undp.org/] The ENRP’s overall objectives are primarily the rehabilitation, installation, and development of the electricity network in the three northern governorates of Dohuk, Erbil, and Suleimaniyah in Iraq. World Food Programme (WFP) Country Involvement — Iraq [http://www.wfp.org/country_brief/indexcountry.asp?country=368] The WFP [http://www.wfp.org/] was set up in 1963 and is the U.N. agency that combats global hunger and supports economic and social development in countries of need. World Health Organization (WHO) Iraq Country Page [http://www.who.int/country/irq/en/] WHO [http://www.who.int/en/] is the United Nations’ specialized agency for health. Other U.N. Agencies — Iraq Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) [http://ochaonline.un.org/] The OCHA works with governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), U.N. agencies and individuals, and helps them mobilize and coordinate their efforts in responding to disasters, emergencies or a humanitarian crisis around the world. U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) [http://www.unep.org/] The UNEP works to promote the future of the earth’s environment. Its activities cover a wide range of environmental issues, including the promotion of environmental science and information and dealing with environmental disasters and emergencies. The UNEP in 1993 issued a report on the environmental effects of oil spills as a result of the 1991 Iraq-Kuwait conflict.7 U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) [http://www.unhcr.ch/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home] The agency’s primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees, and coordinates efforts to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. For information specifically on Iraq, click on the “Search RefWorld” link in the search box and select Iraq from the “Country Index” box. 7 U.N. Environment Programme, Updated Scientific Report on the Environmental Effects of the Conflict between Iraq and Kuwait, Mar. 8, 1993, United Nations document UNEP/GC.17/lnf.9. This document summarizes the United Nations’ findings on the environmental impacts of the oil fires and oil spills during the 1991 Gulf War. CRS-4 Two U.N. websites provide background information and major documents pertaining to Iraq, and current news and information concerning the U.N. role in Iraq, respectively: ReliefWeb Iraq [http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/ByCountry/Iraq?OpenDocument&StartKey=I raq&Expandview] This ReliefWeb Iraq page contains the latest major documents and background information on humanitarian issues pertaining to Iraq. ReliefWeb [http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf] is a project of the United Nations’ Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and serves the information needs of the humanitarian community. U.N. News Centre: Iraq [http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusRel.asp?infocusID=50&Body=Iraq&Body1=]. The Iraq page provides current news stories and information on the United Nations’ role and work in Iraq. The U.N. News Centre [http://www.un.org/News/] is a U.N. news service that provides the latest daily news covering the United Nations, as well as links to other U.N. news resources. Key U.S. Government Agencies Following is a list of key U.S. government agencies that are currently involved in providing humanitarian assistance to Iraq. Internet addresses of these agencies, as well as links to their Web pages on Iraq (if available), are provided. Agency for International Development (USAID) Assistance for Iraq [http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/] USAID is an independent federal government agency responsible for providing economic and humanitarian assistance around the globe. Information is provided on all USAID assistance programs by country and region. Following are offices within USAID that also provide some type of specialized humanitarian assistance: Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) Iraq: Humanitarian Aid and Reconstruction Assistance [http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/ countries/iraq/hra_index.html] The OFDA focuses on disaster prevention, preparedness, and delivery of disaster relief. Office of Food for Peace (FFP) [http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/ffp/] The FFP makes commodity donations to NGOs to address the needs of food security through five-year development projects and through emergency food assistance. CRS-5 Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI) [http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/transition_initiatives/] The OTI helps local partners advance peace and democracy in major conflict-prone countries, and works closely with local, national, international, and nongovernmental partners to carry out short-term, high-impact projects that increase momentum for peace, reconciliation, and reconstruction, including encouraging measures to bring the military under civilian democratic control. Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) [http://www.state.gov/g/prm/] The PRM of the Department of State coordinates U.S. international population policy and promotes its goals through bilateral and multilateral cooperation. It works closely with the U.S. Agency for International Development, which administers U.S. international population programs. PRM also administers and monitors U.S. contributions to international and nongovernmental organizations to assist and protect refugees abroad. Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA)8 [http://www.cpa-iraq.org/] The CPA, which was responsible for the administration and humanitarian efforts in Iraq, and headed by former diplomat L. Paul Bremer III, ceased to exist as of June 28, 2004. Current information concerning Iraq may be found at the U.S. Embassy in Iraq website [see below]. U.S. Embassy in Iraq [http://iraq.usembassy.gov/] This website provides current information for the new sovereign Iraq, which includes “Key Embassy Links” and other useful information concerning Iraq. Department of Agriculture [http://www.usda.gov/] U.S. International Food Aid Programs provides humanitarian assistance to needy people throughout the world, including poor countries (See “Iraq Food Aid”). [http://www.fas.usda.gov/food-aid.html] See Country Pages — Iraq. [http://www.fas.usda.gov/hotpages/default.asp?lstCode=IZ&submit=Submit+Query] Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) [http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/index.html] The OFAC of the U.S. Department of the Treasury administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign countries, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, and those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The OFAC also issues licenses for American NGOs planning to provide humanitarian assistance independently to the Iraqi people. 8 Due to the dissolution of the CPA, this site for the CPA-Iraq Coalition will no longer be updated. It will remain available for historical purposes until June 30, 2006. CRS-6 See OFAC’s Sanctions Program and Country Summaries — Iraq for specific guidelines for NGO registration: [http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/ sanctions/index.html] Office of Humanitarian Assistance and Mine Action (HA/MA) [http://www.dsca.osd.mil/programs/HA/HA.htm] The HA/MA is part of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA). It provides supervision and oversight of the Department of Defense (DOD) humanitarian mine action and humanitarian assistance programs for the Director, DSCA. The DOD programs include the Humanitarian Mine Action program (HMA), the Humanitarian Assistance (HA) program, the Humanitarian and Civic Assistance (HCA) program, and the Foreign Disaster Relief Assistance and Emergency Response (FDR/ER) program. Office of International Information Programs (IIP) [http://usinfo.state.gov/] The IIP, part of the Department of State, is the principal international communications service for the State Department. See Iraq Update for latest news, including the Administration’s plans on humanitarian assistance and fact sheets concerning Iraq. [http://usinfo.state.gov/mena/middle_east_north_africa/iraq.html] Selected Major International and Nongovernmental Organizations — Iraq Following is a list of major international aid organizations that may possibly provide humanitarian assistance to Iraq. Internet addresses of the humanitarian aid organizations as well as links to their Web pages on Iraq (if available) are provided. Doctors Without Borders* (French name: Médecins Sans Frontières, or MSF) [http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/] MSF, founded by French doctors in 1971, delivers emergency aid to victims of armed conflict, epidemics, and natural and man-made disasters, and to others who lack health care due to social or geographical isolation. MSF News from Iraq press releases: [http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/ news/iraq.cfm] *Note: According to a November 4, 2004, MSF press release, “MSF Stops Activities in Iraq,” MSF is “closing its programs in Iraq due to the escalating violence in the country.”9 Human Rights Watch (HRW) [http://www.hrw.org/] HRW is an NGO dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. Current information on Iraq: [http://hrw.org/doc/?t=mideast&c=iraq] 9 Full text of the November 4, 2004, MSF Press Release, “MSF Stops Activities in Iraq,” available at [http://www.doctorswithoutborders-usa.org/pr/2004/11-04-2004.cfm]. CRS-7 Background on War in Iraq: [http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/iraq/] HRW World Report 2005 — Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan: [http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/13/iraq9805.htm] International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) [http://www.icrc.org/] The ICRC, established in 1863, is impartial, neutral, and independent international organization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance. ICRC in Iraq: [http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList74/ F8EB853A6796F202C1256B6600601EDD] International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) [http://www.ifrc.org/] The IFRC is the world’s largest humanitarian organization, and its mission is to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobilizing the power of humanity. IFRC in Iraq: [http://www.ifrc.org/where/country/cn6.asp?countryid=87] Mercy Corps International [http://www.mercycorps.org/] Mercy Corps is a not-for-profit organization that exists to alleviate suffering, poverty, and oppression by helping people build secure, productive, and just communities. Middle East Programs: Iraq: [http://www.mercycorps.org/items/1398/] Oxfam International [http://www.oxfam.org/eng/index.htm] Oxfam International is a confederation of 12 organizations working together in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty, suffering, and injustice. Oxfam-Iraq: [http://www.oxfam.org/eng/programs_emer_iraq.htm] Selected U.S.-Based Humanitarian Aid Organizations — Iraq Following is a selected list of U.S.-based aid organizations that may possibly provide humanitarian assistance to Iraq. Internet addresses of the aid organizations as well as links to their Web pages on Iraq (if available) are provided. American Friends Service Committee (AFSC): Statement on Iraq [http://www.afsc.org/iraq/default.htm] The AFSC [http://www.afsc.org/] is a Quaker organization that includes people of various faiths who are committed to social justice, peace, and humanitarian service. CARE USA*: Iraq Regional Crisis [http://www.careusa.org/iraq/iraq-war.asp] CRS-8 CARE USA [http://www.careusa.org/] is a part of CARE International, a confederation of 11 CARE organizations that strives to be a global force and partner of choice within a worldwide movement dedicated to ending poverty. *Note: According to the CARE website, due to the death of Margaret Hassan, CARE’s Director in Iraq, CARE has closed its operations in Iraq. Catholic Relief Services (CRS): Statement on Iraq [http://www.catholicrelief.org/our_work/where_we_work/overseas/middle_east_a nd_north_africa/iraq/statement.cfm] CRS [http://www.catholicrelief.org/] was founded by the Catholic Bishops of the United States to assist the poor and disadvantaged outside the country. Church World Service (CWS): Statement on Iraq [http://www.churchworldservice.org/news/Iraq/index.html] CWS [http://www.churchworldservice.org/] is the relief, development, and refugee assistance ministry of 36 Protestant, Orthodox, and Anglican denominations in the United States. CWS works worldwide to meet human needs and foster selfreliance. Lutheran World Relief (LWR): Iraq Update [http://www.lwr.org/mideast/] LWR [http://www.lwr.org/] works with partners in 50 countries to help people grow food, improve health, strengthen communities, end conflict, build livelihoods, and recover from disasters. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR): Research and Investigations — Iraq (historical reports prior to the Iraq war) [http://www.phrusa.org/research/find/find_iraq.html] PHR [http://www.phrusa.org/] promotes health by protecting human rights. Using medical and scientific methods, PHR investigates and exposes violations of human rights worldwide and works to stop them. U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR): Iraq: World Refugee Survey 2004 Country Report [http://www.refugees.org/countryreports.aspx?area=investigate&subm=19&ssm= 29&cid=119] USCR [http://www.refugees.org/] defends the rights and calls for adequate protection and assistance of all uprooted people, including refugees and asylum seekers. World Resources Institute (WRI): Environmental profiles for Iraq and other Middle Eastern countries [http://pubs.wri.org/pubs_content_text.cfm?ContentID=2865] WRI [http://www.wri.org/] is an environmental think tank that provides information, ideas, and solutions to global environmental problems and finds practical ways to protect the earth and improve people’s lives. World Vision International: Country profile on Iraq, development issues, and news archives [http://www.wvi.org/wvi/country_profile/profiles/iraq.htm] CRS-9 World Vision [http://www.wvi.org/wvi/home.htm] is an international Christian aid and development organization that promotes the well-being of all people, especially children, in countries around the world.