Order Code RS22050 June 16, 2005 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web FY2006 Appropriations for State and Local Homeland Security Shawn Reese Analyst in American National Government Government and Finance Division Summary In the FY2006 budget request, the Administration proposes roughly $3.36 billion for state and local homeland security assistance programs. This is $250 million less than these programs were appropriated in FY2005 ($3.61 billion). The Administration proposes to combine the Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program (appropriated $400 million) with the State Homeland Security Grant Program and the Urban Area Security Initiative. It also arguably proposes to transfer five Urban Area Security Initiative sub-grants (rail, port, intercity bus, trucking industry, and non-governmental security grants) to a new Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program. Additionally, the Administration proposes to change the current formula used to allocate State Homeland Security Grant Program funds to states and localities. H.R. 2360 proposes $3.19 for state and local homeland security assistance programs, this is $425 million less than these programs were appropriated in FY2005. This report discusses these changes. The report will be updated as circumstances warrant. This report is a preliminary overview of the Administration’s FY2006 budget request and Congress’ proposed appropriations for selected programs of homeland security assistance to state and local first responders: firefighters, emergency medical personnel, law enforcement officers, etc. The report also describes proposed changes in the administrative arrangements through which this homeland security assistance would be allocated to state and local governments. The report does not cover public safety and preparedness assistance programs.1 It covers only programs that are intended to help state and local recipients enhance their 1 Programs not covered include general assistance grant programs that are authorized for a broad range of public safety activities, such as the Local Law Enforcement Block Grant, the Byrne Memorial Formula Grant, and Community-Oriented Policing Services. Nor does this report track appropriations for bioterrorism preparedness and National Guard funding. Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS-2 preparedness for terrorist attacks and that are administered by the Office for Domestic Preparedness (ODP), within the Office for State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness (SLGCP): ! ! ! ! ! ! State Homeland Security Grant Program (SHSGP); Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program (TIPP) — a new proposal; Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI); Assistance to Firefighters (FIRE); Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG); and Citizen Corps Programs (CCP). Although these programs are not the only federal homeland security assistance available to state and local governments, their aggregate FY2005 appropriation of roughly $3.59 billion suggests the level of importance Congress has assigned to enhancing the preparedness of state and local first responders to deal with terrorist attacks. Administrative Changes. The Administration’s budget request proposes to make the following changes to the federal homeland security assistance administered by ODP: (1) merging the Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program (LETPP) activities into the State Homeland Security Grant Program and the Urban Area Security Initiative, however the House does not agree with the merge and proposes to appropriate $400 million for LETPP; (2) transferring five Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) sub-grants to a new Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program (TIPP); the House does not propose a new TIPP, it proposes to appropriate funding for infrastructure protection through UASI; and (3) changing the formula used to allocate State Homeland Security Grant Program funds to states and localities, and the House proposes changing the formula. Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention. In the FY2006 budget request, the Administration provides no line item funding for the Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program (LETTP). It proposes, however, to direct states and localities to allocate no less than 20% of State Homeland Security Grant Program (SHSGP) and Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) funding for LETTP activities.2 Apparently, this is a reduction in funding for both of these grant programs. In FY2005, Congress appropriated $1.1 billion for SHSGP, and states and localities were authorized to use this funding for homeland security equipment, training, exercises, and planning.3 By requiring states and localities to allocate no less than 20% ($204 million) of the FY2006 budget request amount of $1.02 billion for SHSGP for LETPP activities, the Administration proposes that ODP allocate $816 million to states and localities for homeland security equipment, training, exercises, and planning. This is $284 million less than the FY2005 appropriated amount for SHSGP. In FY2005, 2 U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Fiscal Year 2006 Budget for the United States Government (Washington: GPO, Feb. 2005), Appendix, p. 478. 3 P.L. 108-334 (FY2005 DHS appropriations). CRS-3 Congress appropriated $860 million for UASI high-threat, high-risk urban areas for homeland security equipment, training, exercises, and planning.4 By requiring highthreat, high-risk urban areas to allocate no less than 20% ($204 million) of the FY2006 budget request amount of $1.02 billion for UASI for LETPP activities, the Administration proposes that ODP allocate $816 million to high-threat, high-risk urban areas for homeland security equipment, training, exercises, and planning. This is $44 million less than the FY2005 appropriated amount for UASI. H.R. 2360, passed by the House on May 17, 2005, does not propose to merge LETPP activities with SHSGP and UASI. It proposes to keep LETPP a separate program and proposes an appropriation of $400 for FY2006.5 Targeted Infrastructure Protection. The Administration proposes the establishment of a new state and local homeland security assistance program, the Targeted Infrastructure Protection Program (TIPP), and requests $600 million for the program. TIPP would provide funding to enhance the security of port, transit systems, and other infrastructure, as determined by the DHS Secretary. Part of the TIPP funds — $50 million — would be used for implementing buffer zone protection plans.6 Because the Administration did not request funding for port, rail, intercity bus, trucking industry, and non-governmental organization security programs in the FY2006 budget request, one could argue that TIPP is intended to replace these UASI sub-grants. TIPP would allow the DHS Secretary to determine which states and localities would receive funding for targeted infrastructure protection. H.R. 2360 does not propose a new targeted infrastructure program, instead it proposes to fund infrastructure security in a similar manner as in FY2005; as part of UASI program activities. H.R. 2360 proposes to appropriate $365 million for infrastructure protection.7 Proposed Formula Changes.8 The Administration proposes to change the formula for ODP’s State Homeland Security Grant Program (SHSGP). The FY2006 budget request proposes $1.02 billion for SHSGP to be allocated based on risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and unmet first responder capabilities, provided each state and territory is allocated no less than 0.25% of total funds appropriated for this program. Additionally, the Administration does not request funding for the Law Enforcement Terrorism 4 Ibid. 5 H.R. 2360, Title III. 6 Fiscal Year 2006 Budget for the United States Government, Appendix, p. 478. 7 H.R. 2360, Title III. 8 At this time, four bills have been introduced in the 109th Congress that propose to change the formula that allocates federal homeland security assistance to states and localities: H.R. 91; H.R. 228; S. 21; and S. 140. CRS-4 Prevention Program (LETPP), but it proposes that 20% of SHSGP and UASI funding be used for LETPP activities.9 Citizen Corps Programs (CCP), and the Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG) would continue to be allocated based on Section 1014 of the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), which guarantees each state a minimum of 0.75% of total appropriated funds for these programs.10 There is no proposed formula change for UASI, except that 20% of total appropriations would be used for law enforcement terrorism prevention activities. Additionally, there is no proposed formula change for the Assistance to Firefighters Program (FIRE); however, the Administration proposes that FIRE applications to enhance terrorism response capabilities be given priority.11 The report accompanying H.R. 2360 (H.Rept. 109-79) directs ODP to allocate funding to states based on Section 1014 of the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), however, the remainder of total appropriations is to be allocated on ODP assessed threats and risks to states. Additionally, it requires ODP to brief Congress on the state threat and risk assessments, and the process of determining unmet state preparedness needs.12 9 Fiscal Year 2006 Budget for the United States Government, Appendix, p. 478. 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid., p. 480. 12 H.Rept. 109-79, H.R. 2360. CRS-5 Table 1. FY2005 Appropriations and FY2006 Budget Request for State and Local Homeland Security Assistance (All amounts in millions) SLGCP Program FY2005 Appropriations FY2006 Budget Request FY2006 Passed by House $1,100 $1,020A $750 [$1,100] [$816] [$750] — [$204] — — $600B — $1,200 $1,020C $1,215 [$860] [$816] [$850] — [$204] — Port Security [$150] — [$150] Rail Security [$150] — [$150] [$5] — [$5] Intercity Bus Security [$10] — [$10] Non-governmental Organizations Security [$25] — — — — [$50] Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention $400 [$408] D $400 Assistance to Firefighters $715 $500 $600 Emergency Management Performance Grants $180 $170 E $180 $15 $50 F $40 State Homeland Security equipment, training, exercises, planning law enforcement terrorism prevention Targeted Infrastructure Protection Urban Area Security Initiative High-threat, high-risk urban areas (equipment, training, exercises, planning) High-threat, high-risk urban areas (law enforcement terrorism prevention) Trucking Industry Security Buffer Zone Protection Citizen Corps State and Local Homeland Security Total $3,610 $3,360 $3,185 Source: P.L. 108-334 (FY2005 DHS appropriations); U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Fiscal Year 2006 Budget of the United States Government (Washington: GPO,Feb. 2005), Appendix, pp. 478-480; and H.R. 2360 (FY2006 DHS appropriations). A. This amount to be allocated on risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and unmet first responder capabilities as determined by the DHS Secretary, provided that each state and territory receives no less than 0.25% of funds appropriated for this program. Additionally, 20% of this amount is to be used for law enforcement terrorism prevention activities. B. This amount to be allocated at the discretion of the DHS Secretary and is for assistance in securing ports, transit systems, and other infrastructure determined by the DHS Secretary. Additionally, $50 million is to be used for buffer zone protection plans. C. This amount to be allocated to high-threat, high-risk urban areas at the discretion of the DHS Secretary based on risks, threats, vulnerabilities, and unmet first responder capabilities. CRS-6 D. This amount is 20% of the $1.02 billion requested for the State Homeland Security Grant Program and the $1.02 billion for the Urban Area Security Initiative for law enforcement terrorism prevention activities. E. This amount is to be allocated based on P.L. 107-56, Section 1014, which guarantees each state a minimum of 0.75% of total appropriated funds. F. Ibid.