Order Code RL30952 Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress Updated March 20, 2003 Alice Butler and Melinda Gish Domestic Social Policy Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress Summary Head Start is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965. Services provided to preschool-aged children include child development, educational, health, nutritional, social and other activities, intended to prepare low-income children for entering kindergarten. The program is administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Unlike many other social service programs, federal Head Start funds are provided directly to local grantees, rather than through states. Programs are locally designed, and are administered by a network of about 1,500 public and private nonprofit agencies. In FY2002, Head Start funded enrollment for 912,345 children. Head Start was last reauthorized in 1998 (P.L. 105-285) for fiscal years 19992003, and is due to be reauthorized this year. Alongside his FY2004 budget request (which asked for $6.8 billion for Head Start), President Bush has proposed to give states the option to administer the program, provided they supply a plan that sufficiently explains how Head Start will be coordinated with other preschool programs to foster comprehensive, high quality preschool programs. The budget also conveys the Administration’s plan to transfer federal responsibility for the Head Start program from HHS to the Department of Education. The Head Start program has received increases of varying levels over the past two decades (see Table 1). The Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 (P.L. 108-7) provides $6.668 billion for Head Start, of which $1.4 billion becomes available in FY2004. This total reflects a $130 million increase from the $6.538 billion appropriated in the FY2002 appropriations law. Program performance and the long-term impact on children, particularly with respect to educational attainment, continue to be areas of focus and concern. The 1998 revisions to the Head Start Act increased the amount of new appropriations that must be used for quality improvement activities, at least through FY2003. In part, the law requires HHS to develop specific education performance standards, and establishes teacher and staff training related to these standards as a priority use of quality improvement funds. In addition, the 1998 amendments to Head Start mandate and reserve funds for additional studies on the program’s impact. Development of a national reporting system that can be used to assess the effectiveness of Head Start programs in achieving successful outcomes for children in terms of school readiness – particularly the areas of literacy and number knowledge – is currently underway. This national reporting system is scheduled to be implemented this fall, and will reportedly assess Head Start 4- and 5-year olds twice a year on educational performance measures – using indicators that were included in legislation as part of the 1998 reauthorization of Head Start. Teachers are also being trained in a Strategic Teacher Education Program (STEP), to use research-based strategies to implement early and emergent literacy. Contents Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Head Start Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Eligibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Early Head Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 President’s Head Start Proposals and Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1998 Reauthorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Long-Term Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 FACES and Head Start Impact Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Coordination with Child Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 List of Tables Table 1. Head Start Funding: FY1990-FY2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Table 2. Estimates of Head Start Populations and Percent Served, FY2001 . . . . 6 Table 3. Head Start FY2003 State Allocations (Estimates) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress Overview Head Start is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965. The program is administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Head Start, last reauthorized in 1998 (P.L. 105285) for fiscal years 1999-2003, is up for reauthorization this year. Alongside his FY2004 budget request (which asked for $6.8 billion for Head Start), President Bush has proposed to give states the option to administer the program, provided they supply HHS and the Department of Education with a plan that sufficiently explains how Head Start will be coordinated with other preschool programs to foster comprehensive, high quality preschool programs. The budget also conveys the Administration’s plan to transfer federal responsibility for the Head Start program from HHS to the Department of Education. (For more details see President’s FY2004 Budget Request and President’s Head Start Proposal, later in this report.) The Head Start program has received increases of varying levels over the past two decades (see Table 1). The most recent appropriations measure, the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 (H.J.Res. 2) was signed into law (P.L. 108-7) on February 20, 2003, and provides the Head Start program with $6.668 billion (of which $1.4 billion becomes available in FY2004). The program was funded at $6.538 billion for FY2002, up from $6.2 billion in FY2001, and $5.267 billion in FY2000. Head Start Program Services. Head Start provides comprehensive early childhood development, educational, health, nutritional, social and other services to low-income preschool children and their families. These services are intended to prepare children to enter kindergarten and to improve the conditions necessary for their success in later school and life. Head Start strongly emphasizes the involvement of families and the local community to assure that programs are responsive to the unique needs of each community. Since flexibility in local program design and operation is encouraged, there is wide variation across the country in how Head Start services are delivered (e.g., center-based, home-based, or some combination), as well as in local program costs, sponsoring agencies, and coordination arrangements with other social service programs. In general, Head Start operates a part-day program during the school year, although some local Head Start programs coordinate with other programs to provide all-day care. CRS-2 Funding. Federal appropriations for Head Start substantially increased during the 1990s, tripling from the FY1990 level of $1.552 billion to the FY1999 level of $4.658 billion, and quadrupling from FY1990 to the FY2003 level of $6.668 billion. These increased appropriations have been used both to expand the number of children served and for quality improvement activities. Table 1. Head Start Funding: FY1990-FY2003 ($ in billions) Year Authorization Appropriation Year Authorization Appropriation 1990 1.552 1.552 1997 ssan 3.981 1991 2.386 1.952 1998 ssan 4.347 1992 4.273 2.202 1999 ssan 4.658 1993 5.924 2.776 2000 ssan 5.267a 1994 7.660 3.326 2001 ssan 6.200a 1995 ssan 3.534 2002 ssan 6.538a 1996 ssan 3.569 2003 ssan 6.668a Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) based on data from the Head Start Bureau. ssan=such sums as necessary. a This amount includes an advance appropriation of $1.4 billion for the following fiscal year. Unlike some other federal social service programs that are funded through the states, HHS awards Head Start funds directly to local public and private nonprofit grantees. Grantees must contribute a 20% nonfederal match, which may be in cash or in-kind, unless they are granted a waiver. No more than 15% of a grantee’s total program costs may be for administration. Funds are awarded to about 1,500 grantees at the discretion of HHS from state allocations determined by a formula in law. However, before these state allocations are made, the law contains a series of setaside provisions that reserve funds for specified activities. Under the 1998 Head Start amendments (P.L. 105-285), up to $35 million of total Head Start appropriations is reserved annually for transition-to-school grants; up to $5 million is reserved annually for national research on the impact of Head Start; and $12 million in FY1999 and such sums as necessary thereafter is reserved for other research, demonstration and evaluation activities, including longitudinal studies. Also of total Head Start appropriations, the Secretary must reserve 13% for use in the following priority order: ! ! Indian and migrant Head Start programs, and services for children with disabilities; payments to outlying territories, not to exceed one-half of 1% of the total annual appropriation. The territories include Guam, American CRS-3 ! ! ! Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau; training and technical assistance (not less than 2% of the total annual appropriation, of which at least $3 million must be related to family literacy); discretionary payments made by the Secretary, including the costs (other than federal salaries) of local program monitoring and correcting deficiencies and conducting proceedings to terminate Head Start grantees; and payments for research, demonstration and evaluation activities. Of remaining Head Start appropriations (after reserving the amounts described above), “regular” Head Start funds are allotted among states according to the following formula, which was established in the 1998 amendments: ! each state first receives an amount equal to the amount received by grantees in that state for FY1998, and any amounts available above the FY1998 level are distributed proportionately among states on the basis of the number of children under 5 years old whose family income is below the federal poverty line. Although the amounts allocated according to the above formula are actually distributed directly to local grantees, the Secretary may use a portion of these funds to make grants to the states, to foster collaboration within the state among Head Start and other activities designed to benefit low-income children and families. These state collaboration grants typically range between $100,000 and $225,000 per state. (See Table 3 at the end of this report for estimated state allocations for Head Start for FY2002.) President’s FY2004 Budget Request. The Administration’s budget for FY2004 (released February 3, 2003) requests $6.816 billion for Head Start (of which $1.4 billion would be advance appropriated for FY2005). The Administration states that in FY2004 almost 923,000 children will receive Head Start services, including 62,000 in Early Head Start. Budget documents also state that the increased funding, coupled with the President’s proposed changes allowing states to administer Head Start in coordination with other preschool programs, will enable the program to maintain current service levels and increase enrollment by up to 10,500 children. In addition, the President proposes to change current law’s set-aside for training and technical assistance (T/TA) from at least 2% of the total Head Start appropriation to up to 2%. According to the Administration, this change would provide the Secretary with the discretionary authority to allocate Head Start funds each year in order to maximize benefits to children and families. The budget also explains that “in order to improve coordination between Head Start and other Federal, State, and local programs affecting pre-school children, the President plans to move responsibility for managing the Head Start program from the Department of CRS-4 Health and Human Services to the Department of Education.”1 It proposes that this transition begin in 2004, with the Department of Education assuming full responsibility for the program in 2005. FY2003 Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations. Fiscal year 2003 funding for the Departments of Labor, HHS, and Education is provided in the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 (P.L. 108-7), signed into law on February 20, 2003. The law includes $6.668 billion for Head Start (of which $1.4 billion is advance appropriated, to become available in FY2005). Unlike many other discretionary programs funded under the law, Head Start is not subject to the across-the-board rescission included in the law.2 Prior to the signing of P.L. 108-7, Congress passed a series of continuing resolutions (CRs) extending funding for programs, including Head Start, into FY2003. Prior to the CRs, the Senate Appropriations Committee approved its version of a Labor/HHS/Ed bill (S. 2766/S.Rept. 107-216). The Committee’s proposed funding level for Head Start was $6.870 billion for FY2003. The House introduced a version of its FY2003 Appropriations bill (H.R. 5320) for Labor/HHS/ED. There was no committee action, and the bill requested the same funding level for Head Start as that proposed by the President in his FY2003 budget. President’s FY2003 Budget Request. The Administration’s FY2003 budget included a $130 million increase for Head Start, which would bring it to $6.667 billion. Of that total, $1.4 billion would be advance appropriated for FY2004. Similar to the FY2002 budget document, the FY2003 budget called for making school readiness – pre-reading and numeracy skills – Head Start’s top priority. Moreover, the Administration expressed support for a plan to move Head Start to the Department of Education as part of the program’s reauthorization in 2003, and highlighted that HHS and ED had formed a task force to assess ways to improve Head Start and facilitate the transfer between agencies. The budget also maintained support ($75 million) for ED’s Early Reading First program, to help prepare young children to read in existing preschool and Head Start programs. FY2002 Funding. On January 10, 2002, H.R. 3061, the bill making FY2002 appropriations for the Departments of Labor, HHS, and Education, was signed into law (P.L. 107-116). It included $6.538 billion for Head Start, of which $5.138 was available in FY2002, and $1.4 billion in FY2003. The FY2002 total Head Start appropriation exceeded the FY2001 level ($6.2 billion) by $338 million. It also was greater than the amount requested by the President in his FY2002 budget ($6.32 billion). The Administration had asserted that its proposed increase would be used to maintain current services and enrollment levels. Despite the Administration’s intent to reverse the practice (which began in FY2000) of advance appropriating funds for Head Start, the FY2002 appropriations bill reserved $1.4 billion of the $6.538 billion appropriated to become available in FY2003. The advance funding 1 2 See Fiscal Year 2004 Budget of the U.S. Government: Analytical Perspectives, p. 251. H.J.Res. 2, as amended and passed by the Senate, (and ultimately passed into law) included S.Amdt. 188 (offered by Senator Dodd), which exempts the Head Start funding from rescission. CRS-5 component has been used as a budgetary mechanism to spread out the obligation of funds for the program, without having programmatic impacts. FY2001 Funding. The FY2001 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 106554) appropriated $6.2 billion for the Head Start program. Of this amount, $4.8 billion was available for FY2001, and $1.4 billion became available in FY2002. Eligibility. As authorized by law, HHS regulations require that at least 90% of children enrolled by each Head Start grantee must come from families with income at or below the official federal poverty guideline ($18,400 for a family of four in 2003) or from families receiving welfare assistance. Up to 10% of the children may be from families whose incomes exceed the poverty guideline. Regulations also require grantees to reserve at least 10% of their slots for children with disabilities. Head Start is authorized to serve children at any age prior to compulsory school attendance; however, most children are 3- and 4-year-olds. However, the 1994 reauthorization did create the Early Head Start program, which serves children under age 3. In FY2002, children under age 3 represented only 7% of total enrollment. Under the 1998 amendments, a child who has been determined to be lowincome and who is participating in Head Start may continue to be considered lowincome for another program year. The 1998 amendments also provide grantees with additional flexibility in determining family income and therefore, eligibility for participation. Specifically, the amendments authorize grantees to consider family income during the 12 months before the month in which an application is submitted, or during the calendar year before the calendar year in which an application is submitted. Participation. Data from HHS show funded enrollment for Head Start in FY2002 to have totaled 912,345 children (of whom about 63,000 were under age 3).3 This is an increase from the FY2001 level of 905,235, and the 857,664 total from FY2000. It should be noted that “funded enrollment” refers to the number of Head Start “slots” that are funded, not the total number of children served throughout the year (accounting for turnover), which is higher. As stated in the FY2004 budget, the Administration foresees almost 923,000 children receiving Head Start services in 2004 (of which approximately the same percentage will be in Early Head Start as in FY2002). 3 Additional program data can be found on the HHS Head Start Bureau’s website [http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/research/2003.htm] CRS-6 Table 2. Estimates of Head Start Populations and Percent Served, FY2001 (number in thousands) Population March 2002 Economically eligible 2001 FY2001 Enrollment Percent served 11,738 2,406 63 3% Age 3 3,818 740 317 43% Age 4 3,977 741 489 66% Age 3-4 7,794 1,481 806 54% Age 5 and above 7,813 1,441 36 3% Age Under 3 Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) using data from the March 2002 Current Population Survey (CPS). Estimates of economic eligibility are based on the percentage of children living in families with annual income below Federal Poverty Income Guidelines or in families receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), in 2001. Head Start enrollment estimates are based on data and estimates from HHS. Early Head Start. Early Head Start (EHS) was established in the 1994 reauthorization legislation (P.L. 103-252), to serve infants and toddlers who are generally too young to participate in the regular Head Start program. The law requires that a portion of Head Start’s total appropriation be set aside to fund the EHS program. For FY1998, Congress earmarked more than was required by law for EHS, and the statutory set-aside was increased in the 1998 amendments to Head Start. One of the few legislative changes sought by the Clinton Administration, during the 1998 debate on Head Start, was an increase in the EHS program. The current law EHS set-asides are: 7.5% in FY1999, 8% in FY2000, 9% in FY2001, and 10% in each of FY2002 and FY2003. The first EHS grants were awarded in September 1995, and totaled $47 million. In FY2000, $421 million was used to support nearly 600 projects in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. These projects served approximately 45,000 low-income families with children under the age of three. EHS grantees must design programs which respond to the strengths and needs of individual families with services including education, in and out of the home; home visits, especially for families with newborns and infants; parent education, including parent-child activities; comprehensive health services, including services to women during and after pregnancy; and ongoing parental support through case management and peer groups. All programs must conduct an assessment of community resources and needs and must ensure the recruitment and development of high quality staff. In addition to increasing EHS appropriations, the 1998 amendments also require that an EHS research and evaluation plan be developed to identify successful program models and variables contributing to program outcomes and to lay groundwork for future longitudinal studies. CRS-7 President’s Head Start Proposals and Initiatives. On February 3, 2003, alongside release of the President’s FY2004 Budget, the Administration issued a press release announcing the President’s proposal to make changes to the Head Start program.4 This was followed by a White House document outlining the Administration’s assessment of the current status of the Head Start program, and its plans for the program in the future.5 The Administration states that the top goal of the Head Start reauthorization this year should be to improve both Head Start and other preschool programs to ensure that children are prepared to enter kindergarten. The President believes states should have the opportunity to administer the program, provided they demonstrate how Head Start will be coordinated with other preschool programs and services to emphasize developing skills and behaviors including language development; pre-reading skills; numeracy; and social and emotional competence, while meeting state-established accountability standards. Under the President’s proposal, interested states would submit a plan for the approval of both HHS and the Department of Education, in which they outline: state preschool goals and activities; a state accountability program; an explanation of how the current level of enrollment of Head Start eligible 3- and 4-year olds will be maintained (if not exceeded); information regarding the most recent year’s spending on Head Start and state preschool programs, and assurances that this level will be at a minimum maintained; plans for assuring professional development for staff; and the plans for coordination of programs and funding (state and federal) for the purpose of promoting school readiness. Programs specifically mentioned are: Head Start, Early Head Start, Title I preschool, the special education preschool program (IDEA), state-funded preschool, and the Child Care and Development Block Grant. The press release does not explicitly mention the planned transfer of the program from HHS to the Department of Education, however, as stated above, this proposal is included in the FY2004 Budget. Aside from proposals that require Congressional approval, the Administration has moved ahead with two additional efforts that are in keeping with the Administration’s Good Start, Grow Smart: Early Childhood initiative, but that do not require legislative changes to the Head Start Act. One is the Strategic Teacher Education Program, also known as Project STEP, described by the Head Start Bureau as “a comprehensive, multi-faceted, sequential professional development endeavor to ensure teachers use research-based strategies to implement early and emergent literacy.” As part of this development, during the summer and fall of 2002, 3,000 Head Start staff and 100 state child care administrators received 32 hours of training in strategies to support children’s emerging literacy. Those who were trained are expected to serve as “mentor coaches” for staff within their respective Head Start programs. 4 For additional information, the press release from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is available at [http://www.dhhs.gov/news/press/2003pres/20030203.html] 5 This document, entitled “Head Start Policy Book” on the White House web site, can be read at [http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/earlychildhood/hspolicybook/summary.html] CRS-8 The second effort is the development of a national reporting system that can be used to assess the effectiveness of Head Start programs in achieving successful outcomes for children in terms of school readiness – particularly the areas of literacy and number knowledge. This national reporting system is scheduled to be implemented this fall, and will reportedly assess Head Start 4- and 5-year olds twice a year on educational performance measures – using indicators that were included in legislation as part of the 1998 reauthorization of Head Start. History of the Proposed Transfer of Head Start to the Department of Education. During his 2000 Presidential campaign, President Bush proposed moving the Head Start program from HHS to the Department of Education as part of an effort to prioritize the education (school-readiness) component of Head Start over the health, nutrition, and social service components of the program. The President proposed a Reading First reform agenda aimed at making pre-reading and numeracy skills Head Start’s top priority. By also supporting an early childhood reading initiative in the Department of Education, along with a reading program focused on children in kindergarten through second grade who are at risk of falling behind, the President’s goal is to ensure that young children participating in existing preschool and Head Start programs are able to read by the time they reach third grade. Many Head Start advocates believe that the Head Start program should remain in HHS. Because Head Start offers a wide variety of services beyond traditional education, there is concern that transferring the program to the Department of Education could restrict Head Start to a narrow, classroom program, without the broad set of human services currently provided. Opponents of the shift further suggest that moving the program from an agency where children receive comprehensive services, to one focused on education, would compromise the parental and community action strengths of Head Start. An aide to the President assures that the proposed move is not intended to interrupt any of the social service components, but to stress the most important part of Head Start, which the President believes is literacy development. The President has described the proposed move as consistent with his priorities, and hopes that moving the program to the Department of Education will increase the chances of making every child a proficient reader by third grade. President Bush is relying on research findings which show that children taught pre-reading and math skills in preschool, enter school ready to learn reading and mathematics. Some of those in favor of keeping Head Start in HHS argue that Head Start already currently focuses on getting children ready for school, including readiness in language and early literacy. There is a history of proposed transfers of the Head Start program. In 1978, President Carter proposed to transfer Head Start to the Department of Education. Edward Zigler, a noted architect of Head Start, was one of the most ardent opponents of the transfer, for the reasons cited above. While the Reagan Administration tried to include Head Start in a block grant, up until now, no president since Carter had recommended a transfer of Head Start to the Department of Education. Based on past history, it is likely that the Bush Administration will face tough opposition as this issue is debated in the 2003 reauthorization. CRS-9 1998 Reauthorization. Although Head Start has traditionally enjoyed widespread support, the program has not been without criticism. Concern has been expressed about the quality of services and the program’s potential for sustaining positive effects over the long-term. The 1998 amendments to Head Start, included in the legislation reauthorizing the program in 1998, continue to emphasize the need for quality improvement. The new law (P.L. 105-285) increased the amount of new appropriations that must be used for quality improvement activities, at least until FY2003, and slows down the pace at which the program can expand. The law requires HHS to develop specific education performance standards, and establishes teacher and staff training related to these standards as a priority use of quality improvement funds. The law encourages payment of higher salaries for staff with higher levels of education and training, and requires every Head Start classroom to have a teacher with demonstrated competency to perform certain functions related to school readiness and child development. The legislation also requires that, by September 30, 2003, half of all Head Start teachers nationwide must have at least an associate, bachelors, or graduate degree in early childhood education or development, or in a related field with experience teaching preschool children. According to HHS program information data, this requirement was met in the 2002 program year, reaching just over 50% – up from 37% holding a postsecondary degree in 1999. The law further requires HHS to develop results-based performance measures, and to review the effectiveness of individual programs in meeting those measures. Long-Term Benefits. During the 1998 reauthorization of Head Start, several congressional committees expressed interest in a rigorous evaluation component for Head Start. While there is widespread agreement that Head Start produces significant short-term gains, there continues to be disagreement over the program’s long-term benefits. Several studies in the 1980s and early 1990s found a “fade-out” of Head Start benefits for children during their later school years, but some researchers have questioned whether this apparent fade-out was due to the children’s preschool experience or the poor quality of the schooling they later received. A 1995 report by the Packard Foundation presents evidence that high-quality early childhood education for low-income children, including Head Start, does produce long-term educational, economic, and societal gains. Head Start programs included in the review generally showed significant favorable effects on grade retention and special education placement. Multi-service Head Start programs did not fare as well as better-funded public preschool programs in overall effectiveness measures, although the report noted that Head Start participants tend to be more disadvantaged, so that comparisons could be affected by preexisting conditions. GAO published a Head Start literature review in 1997, in which it concluded that an extensive body of literature exists, but the research is inadequate to draw conclusions about the impact of Head Start on a national basis (Head Start: Research Provides Little Information on Impact of Current Program, HEHS-97-59, April 1997). GAO noted that most of the studies were on cognitive outcomes and did not evaluate such program components as nutrition or health-related services. Moreover, the quality of some of the research was poor and none of the studies used a nationally representative sample that would enable conclusions to be drawn about the national program. However, GAO pointed out that HHS currently has a variety CRS-10 of research and evaluation activities underway that will eventually produce information about the program’s impact. The 1998 amendments to Head Start mandate and reserve funds for additional studies on the impact of Head Start. The law also requires all Head Start agencies to coordinate with the local education agency and community schools, to develop procedures for the transition of Head Start children into kindergarten and elementary school. The law also requires HHS to provide technical assistance to Head Start programs to help ensure school readiness of children and to promote family literacy. FACES and Head Start Impact Study. Two evaluation efforts underway which are designed to measure the effectiveness of the Head Start program are the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) and the National Impact Study. FACES, initially launched in 1997 (with the most recent cohort starting in Fall of 2000), is a periodic, longitudinal study of successive nationally representative samples of children and families in Head Start programs. The purpose of the study is to provide descriptions of the cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development of Head Start children; the characteristics, well-being, and accomplishments of families; the observed quality of Head Start classrooms; and the characteristics, needs, and opinions of Head Start teachers and other program staff. Children and parents are studied at entry into the program, followed for one or two years of program participation, and followed-up at the end of the child’s kindergarten year.6 The National Impact Study, mandated by the 1998 reauthorization law (P.L. 105-285), began in FY2001, and is designed to provide a national analysis of the impact of Head Start on the development and school-readiness of low-income children. The study requires random assignment of children to Head Start and nonHead Start groups, with attention being paid to the type and quality of other care and services that the control group receives. Data collection began in the Fall of 2002, and results of the study are not expected until 2006. Coordination with Child Care. Particularly in light of welfare reform requirements instituted in 1996, which have caused more parents to work or participate in training activities, Head Start is working to respond to the needs of families for full-time child care. In recent years, HHS has used some of the Head Start expansion funds to build partnerships with child care providers to deliver fullday, full-year services. The 1998 amendments also were intended to encourage collaboration between child care and Head Start and to promote the development of unified early education and child care plans that will increase the availability of fulltime services. The law authorizes the Secretary of HHS to provide supplemental collaboration funds to states that undertake such unified planning or other innovative collaborative initiatives. 6 For information on recent findings from the FACES study research team, see “What Are We Learning About Program Quality and Child Development?” by Ruth Hubbell, available at: [http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/core/ongoing_research/faces/nhsa/nhsa_home.html] CRS-11 The 1998 amendments also direct the Secretary to identify barriers to collaboration and to develop a mechanism for resolving programmatic conflicts, and to provide technical assistance related to the provision of full-day, full-year services. In addition, factors to be considered in awarding Head Start expansion grants, under the 1998 amendments, include the applicant’s ability to coordinate with other community child care providers and preschool programs to provide full-day, full-year services. Moreover, the law authorizes Head Start agencies to charge fees for extended-day services provided to children, if necessary as part of a collaboration with another agency. CRS-12 Table 3. Head Start FY2003 State Allocations (Estimates) State Alabama Amount $102,170,000 State Amount Nevada 20,184,000 13,119,000 Alaska 12,348,000 New Hampshire Arizona 98,863,000 New Jersey 127,694,000 Arkansas 62,252,000 New Mexico 50,175,000 California 817,556,000 Colorado New York 426,655,000 67,038,000 North Carolina 135,337,000 Connecticut 50,990,000 North Dakota 16,359,000 Delaware 12,534,000 Ohio District of Columbia 24,576,000 Oklahoma 78,457,000 58,254,000 241,768,000 Florida 257,448,000 Oregon Georgia 164,995,000 Pennsylvania 223,524,000 Hawaii 22,419,000 Puerto Rico 239,018,000 Idaho 22,099,000 Rhode Island 21,611,000 Illinois 265,008,000 South Carolina 80,086,000 Indiana 90,451,000 South Dakota 18,442,000 Iowa 50,491,000 Tennessee 114,604,000 Kansas 48,873,000 Texas 463,434,000 Kentucky 105,555,000 Utah 37,000,000 Louisiana 137,766,000 Vermont 13,285,000 Maine 27,198,000 Virginia 97,285,000 Maryland 76,437,000 Washington 99,204,000 Massachusetts 106,278,000 West Virginia 49,603,000 Michigan 229,824,000 Wisconsin 88,690,000 Minnesota 71,045,000 Wyoming 12,122,000 Mississippi 158,384,000 Virgin Islands 10,077,000 Missouri 115,535,000 Outer Pacific 15,244,000 Montana 20,522,000 American Indian 185,452,000 Nebraska 35,276,000 Migrant Programs 263,002,000 Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) based on the Department of Health and Human (HHS) Budget Justifications for FY2004. Note: State allocations do not include funding for technical assistance ($170 million) and Research, Development and Evaluation ($20 million). Total FY2003 Head Start funding= $6.668 billion.