Order Code RL30722 Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Drug Offenses: Maximum Fines and Terms of Imprisonment for Violation of the Federal Controlled Substances Act and Related Laws Updated January 30, 2003 Charles Doyle Senior Specialist American Law Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Drug Offenses: Maximum Fines and Terms of Imprisonment for Violation of the Federal Controlled Substances Act and Related Laws Summary This is a chart of the maximum fines and terms of imprisonment that may be imposed as a consequence of conviction for violation of the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and other drug supply and drug demand related laws. It lists the penalties for: heroin, cocaine, crack, PCP, LSD, marihuana (marijuana), amphetamine, methamphetamine, listed (precursor) chemicals, paraphernalia, date rape drugs, rave drugs, designer drugs, ecstasy, drug kingpins, as well as the other substances including narcotics and opiates assigned to Schedule I, Schedule II, Schedule III, Schedule IV, and Schedule V of the Controlled Substances Act and the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (Title II and Title III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act). It maps the penalty structure for violations of 21 U.S.C. 841 (drug trafficking), 21 U.S.C. 960 (illicit drug import and export), 21 U.S.C. 962 (recalcitrant drug smugglers), 46 U.S.C. App. 1903 (maritime drug law enforcement), 21 U.S.C. 841(b)(6)(environmental damage from illegal manufacturing), 21 U.S.C. 841(e)(booby traps on federal lands), 21 U.S.C. 842 (regulatory offenses), 21 U.S.C. 843 (communications-related offenses), 21 U.S.C. 844 (simple possession), 21 U.S.C. 846, 963 (attempt and conspiracy), 21 U.S.C. 849 (drug dealing at truck stops), 21 U.S.C. 848 (continuing criminal enterprises (CCE)), 21 U.S.C. 854 (investment of illicit drug profits), 21 U.S.C. 859 (distribution to infants, minors, children, juveniles, and those under 18 years of age), 21 U.S.C. 861 (distribution to pregnant women), 21 U.S.C. 860 (distribution in school zones), 18 U.S.C. 1962 (racketeering (RICO)), 18 U.S.C. 1952 (Travel Act), 18 U.S.C. 924(e) (armed career criminals), 18 U.S.C. 3559(c)(three strikes), 18 U.S.C. 1956 (money laundering), 31 U.S.C. 5322 (currency transaction reporting (smurfing)), 21 U.S.C. 1906 (financial transactions with designated foreign narcotics traffickers), 26 U.S.C. 7201 (tax evasion), 26 U.S.C. 7203 (failure to file required returns), 26 U.S.C. 7206 (fraud and false statements). It is an excerpt from CRS Report 97-141 A, Drug Smuggling, Drug Dealing and Drug Abuse: Background and Overview of the Sanctions Under the Federal Controlled Substances Act and Related Statutes. Contents Chart 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Drug Offenses: Maximum Fines and Terms of Imprisonment for Violation of the Federal Controlled Substances Act and Related Laws Chart 1 Unlawful distribution, possession with intent to distribute, manufacture, importation and exportation, etc. (21 U.S.C. 841, 960, 962, and 46 U.S.C.App. 1903)1 1st offense Substance Heroin Amount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine . . . . . . . . . . . . . Imprisonment One kilogram or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 100 grams to one kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Coca leaf and derivatives 5 kilograms or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 500 grams to 5 kilograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 500 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Ecgonine (a cocaine precursor) 5 kilograms or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 100 grams to 5 kilograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Coca leaves, cocaine, or ecgonine containing cocaine base ("Crack," etc.) 50 grams or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 50 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 5 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . PCP (phencyclidine) 100 grams or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 10 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixture or substance containing detectable amount of PCP 1 kilogram or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 100 grams to 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) 10 grams or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 1 to 10 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 10 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide (Fentanyl, i.e., "synthetic heroin") 400 grams or more (or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of it or any analogue of it) . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 1 10 years to life 5 to 40 years Up to 20 years 10 years to life 5 to 40 years Up to 20 years 10 years to life 5 to 40 years Up to 20 years 10 years to life 5 to 40 years Up to 20 years 10 years to life 5 to 40 years Up to 20 years 10 years to life 5 to 40 years Up to 20 years 10 years to life 5 to 40 years Up to 20 years 10 years to life All trafficking offenses are subject to the same imprisonment penalty -- 20 years to life -- if death or serious bodily injury results from the use of the substance involved. Unless otherwise indicated weights apply to any mixture containing a detectable amount of the substance regardless of the weight of the substance in the mixture. A reference to a fine of "$4/10 million" means a fine of not less than $4 million or more than 10 million and a reference to "10 years to life" means a term of imprisonment of not less than 10 years nor more than life. CRS-2 40 to 400 grams (or 10 grams of a mixture containing detectable amount) . . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 40 years Less than 40 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years Marihuana 1000 kilograms or more or 1000 or more plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 1000 kilograms or 100 to 1000 plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 100 kilograms or 100 plants . . . . . . . . . . . Under 50 kilograms2, 10 kilograms of hashish, or one kilogram of hashish oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 years to life $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 40 years $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years $250,000/$1 million . . . . . . Up to 5 years Methamphetamine3 50 grams or more or 500 grams or more of a mixture . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 50 grams or 50 to 500 grams of a mixture . . . . . . . . . $2/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 5 grams or less than 50 grams of a mixture . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Gamma hydroxybutyric acid any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Flunitrazepam 1 gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 milligrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $250,000/$1 million . . . . . . Any other Schedule I or II substance4 any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1/5 million . . . . . . . . . . . . Any Schedule III substance any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $250,000/$1 million . . . . . . Any Schedule IV substance any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $250,000/$1 million . . . . . . Any Schedule V substance any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $100,000/$250,000 . . . . . . . 2nd offense5 Heroin One kilogram or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 100 grams to one kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Coca leaf and derivatives 5 kilograms or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 500 grams to 5 kilograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 500 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Ecgonine (a cocaine precursor) 5 kilograms or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 100 grams to 5 kilograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Coca leaves, cocaine, or ecgonine containing cocaine base ("Crack," etc.) 50 grams or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 50 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 5 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 years to life 5 to 40 years Up to 20 years Up to 20 years Up to 20 years Up to 5 years Up to 20 years Up to 5 years Up to 3 years Up to 1 year 20 years to life 10 years to life Up to 30 years 20 years to life 10 years to life Up to 30 years 20 years to life 10 years to life Up to 30 years 20 years to life 10 years to life Up to 30 years 2 Except in the case of 50 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight, and except that under section 841(b)(4) distribution of a small amount of marihuana for no remuneration is treated as a simple possession offense and punished under section 844, infra. 3 The penalties do not apply to importation or exportation, which are subject to imprisonment for not more than 20 years and a fine of not more than $1 million for individuals and not more than $5 million for organizations, regardless of the amount of the controlled substance involved. 4 The penalties do not apply to importation or exportation, which are subject to imprisonment for not more than 20 years and a fine of not more than $2/5 million where the substance involved is under schedule I or II and imprisonment for not more than 5 years and a fine of not more than $250,000/1 million where it is under III, IV or V. 5 A second offense is one committed after a prior conviction for any felony drug offense, under any Federal, State, or foreign law that prohibits or restricts conduct relating to narcotic drugs, marihuana, or depressant or stimulant substances. CRS-3 PCP (phencyclidine) 100 grams or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 10 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixture or substance containing detectable amount of PCP 1 kilogram or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 grams to 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LSD(lysergic acid diethylamide) 10 grams or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 to 10 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 10 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl] propanamide (Fentanyl, i.e., "synthetic heroin") 400 grams or more (or 100 grams or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of it or any analogue of it) . . . . . . . 40 to 400 grams (or 10 grams of a mixture containing detectable amount) . . . . . . . . . . Less than 40 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marihuana 1000 kilograms or more or 1000 or more plants) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 1000 kilograms or 100 to 1000 plants) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 to 100 kilograms or 100 plants . . . . . . . . Less than 50 kilograms6, 10 kilograms of hashish, or one kilogram of hashish oil . . . . . . . . . . . Methamphetamine7 100 grams or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 100 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 10 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gamma hydroxybutyric acid any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flunitrazepam 1 gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 milligrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Any other Schedule I or II substance8 any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Any Schedule III substance any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Any Schedule IV substance any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Any Schedule V substance any weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd offense $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 20 years to life $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 years to life $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 20 years to life $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 years to life $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 20 years to life $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 years to life $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 20 years to life $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 years to life $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 20 years to life $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 yrs. to life $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $500,000/$2 million . . . . . . Up to 10 years $8/20 million . . . . . . . . . . . 20 years to life $4/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . 10 years to life $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $500,000/$2 million . . . . . . Up to 10 years $2/10 million . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years $500,000/$2 million . . . . . . Up to 10 years $500,000/$2 million . . . . . . Up to 6 years $200,000/$500,000 . . . . . . . Up to 2 year A Schedule I or II substance singled out for special penalty treatment (as indicated above) in amounts constituting a top level offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Same as 2d offense . . . . . . . Life, no release Cultivation on Federal property (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(5)) Any offense 6 Except in the case of 50 or more marihuana plants regardless of weight and except that distribution of a small amount of marihuana is punishable as simple possession under section 844, infra. 7 The penalties do not apply to importation or exportation, which are subject to imprisonment for not more than 30 years and a fine of not more than $2 million for individuals and not more than $10 million for organizations, regardless of the amount of the controlled substance involved. 8 The penalties do not apply to importation or exportation, which are subject to imprisonment for not more than 30 years and fines of not more than $2/10 million where the substance involved is under schedule I or II and imprisonment for not more than 10 years and fines of not more than $500,000/2 million where it is under III, IV or V. CRS-4 All substances/all weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater of $500,000/ . . . . . . Maximum term for $1 million or the distribution of the maximum fine for substance involved distribution of the substance involved Environmental damage on Federal property resulting from controlled substance manufacturing or distribution (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(6)) Any offense9 All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Up to $250,000 . . . . Up to 5 years Use of a controlled substance to commit a crime of violence (21 U.S.C. 841(b)(7) Any offense10 All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Up to $250,000 . . . . Up to 20 years Offenses involving precursor and essential (listed) chemicals, generally (21 U.S.C. 841(d)) Any offense11 List I chemicals [under 21 U.S.C. 802(34)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years List II chemicals [under 21 U.S.C. 802(35)] Up to $250,000 Up to 10 years Boobytraps on Federal property (21 U.S.C. 841(e))12 1st offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $10,000 . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years 2nd offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $20,000 . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years Wrongful distribution or possession of precursor and essential (listed) chemicals (21 U.S.C. 841(g)) Knowing unlawful distribution Listed chemicals [under 21 U.S.C. 802 (34)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 5 years Knowing possession of unreported listed chemicals Listed chemicals [under 21 U.S.C. 802 (34)] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $100,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 1 year Regulatory offenses & use of communications to facilitate distribution (21 U.S.C. 842, 843) 1st offense Generally13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $100,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 1 year 9 Creating a serious hazard to human or animal life, or harming the environment, or causing water pollution as a result of using poisons, chemicals or other hazardous substances on Federal property while in the course of unlawfully manufacturing or otherwise distributing a controlled substance. 10 Distributing a controlled substance to another with the intent to commit a crime of violence upon the victim. 11 Possession with intent to use for unauthorized manufacture of a controlled substance; possession or distribution knowing that the chemical will be used for unauthorized manufacture of a controlled substance; or, with intent of causing evasion of the record-keeping or reporting requirements of 21 U.S.C. 830 (or regulations pursuant thereto), receipt or distribution of a reportable amount in units small enough so that the making of records or filing of reports is not required. 12 Assembly, maintenance, or placement -- in connection with the manufacture, distribution, or dispensing of a controlled substance. 13 Knowingly distributing a controlled substance to an unauthorized person by a registrant, removing required labels, unlawful use of information acquired during a controlled substance inspection, failing to keep required records, etc. CRS-5 Deception offenses, etc.14 Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 4 years Methamphetamine equipment offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $30,000 . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years 2nd offense Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 2 years Deception offenses, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 8 years Methamphetamine equipment offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $60,000 . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years Simple possession (21 U.S.C. 844)15 1st offense Cocaine base, over 5 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . All other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not less than $1,000 . . . . . . 2nd offense16 Cocaine base, over 3 grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . All other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Not less than $2,500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd offense Cocaine base, over 1 gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . All other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not less than $5,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 20 years Up to 1 year 5 to 20 years 15 days to 2 years 5 to 20 years 90 days to 3 years Any offense Flunitrazepam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 3 years Attempt and conspiracy (21 U.S.C. 846, 963) Any offense All substances . . . . Same as penalties for the underlying offense Manufacturing or Distributing Controlled Substances Within 1000 Feet of a Truck Stop or Highway Rest Area (21 U.S.C. 849) 1st offense All substances . . . . Up to twice the penalties otherwise authorized 2nd offense All substances . . . . Up to three times the penalties otherwise authorized Continuing Criminal Enterprise (CCE) ("kingpin") (21 U.S.C. 848)17 1st offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $2 million . . . . . . . . . 20 years to life 14 To knowingly: use fictitious, revoked, suspended or expired registration number; obtain a controlled substance by fraud, forgery, or other form of deceit; provide false information; use labels and other markings to render a drug a counterfeit substance; unlawfully possess certain controlled substance manufacturing equipment; being a registrant, unlawfully distribute a controlled substance in the course of legitimate business; create or receive a mixture containing listed chemicals to evade regulatory requirements. 15 If convicted of a simple possession offense, the defendant is required, if able, to pay the "reasonable costs" of the investigation and prosecution of the offense. Penalties for simple possession are also applicable to distribution of a "small amount" of marihuana for no remuneration. 16 For purposes of the section under which the possession penalties are imposed, a prior conviction includes conviction of any offense under the Controlled Substances Act or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act and any drug or narcotic offense chargeable under State law. 17 Under the statute, a person is considered to be engaged in a continuing criminal enterprise if (1) he commits any felony violation of the Controlled Substances Act or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, (2) the violation is a part of a continuing series of violations of those statutes (A) which are undertaken by the person in concert with five or more other persons with respect to whom such person occupies a position of organizer, a supervisory position, or any other position of management, and (B) from which such person obtains substantial income or resources. Note that some violations carry the death penalty as discussed supra. CRS-6 2nd offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $4 million . . . . . . . . . 30 years to life Any offense, if the offender is a major participant, involving an enterprise that grosses $10 million a year or more or involving 300 times the amount of controlled substances required to trigger the most severe distribution penalties of 21 U.S.C. 841 All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $4 million . . . . . . . . . life Establishing manufacturing operations (21 U.S.C. 856) Opening, maintaining, financing or making available a place for unlawful manufacture, distribution or use of controlled substances All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $500,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years Endangering human life while illegally manufacturing a controlled substance (21 U.S.C. 858) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years Distribution to persons under age 21 by those age 18 or older (21 U.S.C. 859) 1st offense All substances . . . . Up to twice the penalties otherwise authorized18 2nd offense All substances . . . . Up to three times the penalties otherwise authorized Employment of persons under 18 years of age (for violation of the CSA) or unauthorized distribution to a pregnant individual (21 U.S.C. 861) 1st offense Generally . . . . . . . . Up to twice the penalties otherwise authorized for the underlying offense but . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . at least 1 year in prison19 2nd offense Generally . . . . . . . . Up to three times the penalties otherwise authorized for the underlying offense but . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . at least 1 year in prison20 Any offense Use of person under 14 or distribution to a person under 18 . . . . . . . . Up to $50,000 . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 5 years Distribution or manufacturing in or near schools, colleges, or certain youth-centered recreational facilities (21 U.S.C. 860)21 1st offense All substances . . . . Up to twice the penalties otherwise authorized for distribution and manufacture but at least 1 year in prison22 18 Except that violation carries a mandatory minimum of no less than one year unless the offense involves marihuana in an amount of 5 grams or less. 19 Also, at least twice any term of supervised release otherwise authorized for a first offense. Any higher mandatory penalty otherwise authorized for the offense would prevail. 20 Also, at least three times any term of supervised release otherwise authorized for a first offense. Penalties for third and subsequent offenses are governed by 21 U.S.C. 841(b)(1)(A). 21 The offense includes distribution or manufacturing in or on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public or private elementary, vocational, or secondary school or a public or private college, junior college, or university, or within 100 feet of a playground, public or private youth center, public swimming pool, or video arcade facility. 22 Also, at least twice any term of supervised released otherwise authorized for a first offense. An exception to the mandatory 1-year minimum is provided with respect to an offense involving 5 grams or less of marihuana. Where the statute provides for a different mandatory penalty, the higher prevails. CRS-7 2nd offense All substances . . . . Up to three times the penalties otherwise authorized for distribution but at least 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . years in prison Trafficking in drug paraphernalia (21 U.S.C. 863) Interstate or foreign sale and transportation of, or use of the mails to sell, drug paraphernalia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 3 years Violation of regulations proscribing financial transactions with significant foreign narcotics traffickers (21 U.S.C.1906) Any offense (individual) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years Any offense (organization) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $10,000,000 Any offense (organization officer or agent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $5,000,000 . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years Commission of a pattern of racketeering activity including one or more narcotic or dangerous drug felony to invest in, acquire, operate or participate in the affairs of an interstate enterprise ((RICO)(18 U.S.C. 1962) Any offense Narcotic and dangerous drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years or life if the maximum for the predicate is life Compensated crime of violence in aid of RICO (18 U.S.C. 1959) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Death or life in prison (murder or kidnapping) All substances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years (maiming) All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years (serious injury) All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 5 years (threats) injury) All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years (attempt or conspiracy to murder or kidnap) All substances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 3 years (attempt or conspiracy to maim or commit a serious assault) Aviation smuggling (19 U.S.C. 1590) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years General smuggling (18 U.S.C. 545) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 5 years Travel Act: use of interstate facilities in aid of controlled substance violations (18 U.S.C. 1952) Any Offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years, or any term of years or life if death results CRS-8 Armed career criminal: possession of a firearm by a convicted felon or other disqualified person with 3 or more prior serious controlled substance convictions (drug crimes punishable by imprisonment for 10 years or more) or prior violent crime convictions (18 U.S.C. 924(e)) Any Offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Not less than 15 years Three strikes: commission of a serious violent felony by an individual with a prior serious controlled substance conviction (drug kingpin or most seriously punished trafficking offense) and a prior serious violent felony conviction or 2 or more prior serious violent felony convictions (18 U.S.C. 3559(c)) Any Offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . life Laundering money from controlled substance violations (18 U.S.C. 1956, 1957; 31 U.S.C. 5322) Laundering (18 U.S.C. 1956) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to greater of . . . . . . . . . . Up to 20 years $500,000 or 2X the amount of $ laundered Monetary traffic in property derived from unlawful activity (18 U.S.C. 1957) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to greater of . . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years $250,000 or 2X the amount of $ laundered Currency transaction and transportation reporting (31 U.S.C. 5322) 1st offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 5 years 2d offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $500,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years Investment of illicit drug profits (21 U.S.C. 854, 855) Any offense All substances Up to the greater of 2X profit/proceeds or $50,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years Prohibited financial transactions in violation of the International Narcotics Trafficking Act (21 U.S.C. 1906) Any Offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 10 years Any Offense by officials of an entity All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $5 million . . . . . . . . . Up to 30 years Tax Offenses (26 U.S.C. 7201, 7203, 7206) Attempted evasion [concerning income from controlled substance violations] (26 U.S.C. 7201) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 5 years CRS-9 Willful failure to file return [concerning income for such violations] (26 U.S.C. 7203) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 5 years Fraud and false statements [concerning income from such violations] (26 U.S.C. 7206) Any offense All substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up to $250,000 . . . . . . . . . . Up to 3 years