Order Code RL30567 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Party Leaders in Congress, 1789-2002: Vital Statistics Updated February 4, 2002 Paul S. Rundquist and Richard C. Sachs Specialists in American National Government Faye M. Bullock Technical Information Specialist Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Party Leaders in Congress, 1789-2002: Vital Statistics Summary This report presents tables that provide historical data, including service dates, party affiliation, and other information, for 15 House and Senate party leadership posts. This information has been updated to reflect leadership changes in the 107th Congress, as of its issuance date. The report will be updated, as changes in House and Senate party leadership positions occur. Although party divisions appeared almost from the First Congress, the formally structured party leadership organizations now taken for granted are a relatively modern development. Constitutionally-specified leaders, namely the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate, can be identified since the first Congress. Other leadership posts, however, were not officially recognized until about the middle of the 19th century, and some are 20th century creations. The Senate was slower than the House to develop a separate, identifiable party leadership. Records of party conferences in the 19th century Senate are not available. Memoirs and other secondary sources reveal the identities of party conference or caucus chairmen for some, but not all, Congresses after about 1850; but these posts carried very little authority. It was not uncommon for Senators to publicly declare that within the Senate parties, there was no single leader. Rather, through the turn of the 20th century, individuals who led the Senate achieved their position through recognized personal attributes, including persuasion and oratorical skills, rather than election or appointment to official leadership posts. The development of Senate party floor leaders was, like in the House, one of slow evolution, linked for the most part to the post of conference chairman. Not until 1945 did Senate Republicans specify that the conference chairmanship and floor leader posts must be held by separate Senators. Among Senate Democrats, the floor leader is also chairman of the conference. The tables in this report do not list all Senators and Representatives who have held all leadership posts. Some leadership posts are excluded in order to provide a manageable amount of data. An appendix explains the abbreviations used to denote political parties. This report will be updated when leadership changes occur. Contents Introduction and Methodical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Leadership Posts Excluded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Appendix: Political Party Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Source Notes and Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 List of Tables Table 1. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 2: House Democratic Floor Leaders, 1899-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 3: House Republican Floor Leaders, 1899-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 4: House Democratic Whips, 1901-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 5: House Republican Whips, 1897-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 6: House Democratic Caucus Chairmen, 1849-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 7: House Republican Conference Chairmen, 1863-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Table 8: Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 9: Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-2002 . . . . . . . . 25 Table 10: Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Table 11: Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen, 1903-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 12: Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1911-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 13: Senate Republican Conference Chairmen, 1893-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table 14: Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 15: Senate Republican Whips, 1915-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Party Leaders in Congress, 1789-2002: Vital Statistics Introduction and Methodical Notes The 15 tables herein provide data on service dates, party affiliation, and other information for the following House and Senate party leadership posts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-2002 House Democratic Floor Leaders, 1899-2002 House Republican Floor Leaders, 1897-2002 House Democratic Whips, 1901-2002 House Republican Whips, 1897-2002 House Democratic Caucus Chairmen, 1849-2002 House Republican Conference Chairmen, 1863-2002 Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-2002 Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-2002 Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-2002 Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen, 19032002 Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1925-2002 Senate Republican Conference Chairmen, 1897-2002 Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-2002 Senate Republican Whips, 1915-2002 This information is current through the initial leadership elections and appointments made for the 107th Congress. Although party divisions sprang up almost from the First Congress, the formally structured party leadership organizations now taken for granted are a relatively modern development. Constitutionally-specified leaders, namely the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate, can be identified since the first Congress. Other leadership posts, however, were not officially recognized until about the middle of the 19th century, and some are 20th century creations. The following tables identify 15 different party leadership posts beginning with the year when each is generally regarded to have been formally established. Included for each post are leaders’ names, party and state affiliations, and dates and Congresses of service. For most Congresses, the report indicates years of service, rather than specific dates of service. However, when a Member died while holding a leadership office, the date of death is included as the end of service date. Beginning with the 100th Congress, exact dates of service are indicated in cases where a leadership change occurs during the course of a Congress. With respect to length of service, the report includes all Congresses in which a Member held a particular CRS-2 leadership post, regardless of whether the Member held the post for the entire Congress or only a portion of it. Official congressional documents (House Journal and Senate Journal, Congressional Record, and predecessor publications) can be used to document the tenure of the constitutionally-specified leaders. However, the actions of the party organizations in choosing other leaders, such as floor leaders, whips, or caucus or conference chairmen, frequently went unacknowledged in these sources. In the frequent absence of party caucus records in the latter half of the 19th century, scholars have had to rely on secondary sources, such as memoirs and correspondence, for evidence of party leadership position-holding. Other problems are caused by the changing nature of congressional leadership. For example, it was the common practice of President Thomas Jefferson and his immediate successors to designate a member of the House as their principal legislative spokesman. Often these spokesmen held no other formal leadership position in the House, and Presidents frequently designated new spokesmen, or even specialized spokesmen for individual measures, as their terms progressed. As these, and other, “leaders” were not chosen by a congressional party group or by a party leader such as the Speaker, these presidential designees have not been included here as “party leaders.” Most historians who study the 19th century House acknowledge that an informal “positional leadership” system emerged possibly as early as the “War Hawk” Congress (1811-1813) under Speaker Henry Clay. Under this system, the Speaker—who at the time designated the chairmen of the standing committees—would name his principal lieutenant to be chairman of the Ways and Means Committee. After the Appropriations Committee was split from the Ways and Means Committee in 1865, the Speaker’s principal floor lieutenant received either of these chairmanships. Sometimes, the Speaker chose a rival for the speakership to chair one of these committees in an effort to resolve intra-party disputes. It is somewhat inaccurate, however, to consider these early floor leaders to be majority leaders in the modern sense, and they have not been included here. The position of chairman of the Appropriations or Ways and Means Committee inevitably made the incumbent a powerful congressional figure because of the important legislation reported from these committees. However, these chairmen were not chosen by the full party organization, as the majority or minority House leaders are now. Furthermore, other leading congressional figures, such as the Republican leader Thomas Brackett Reed, achieved their positional influence within the House by service on other committees, such as—in Reed’s case—the post-1880 Rules Committee. The Senate was later than the House in developing a separate, identifiable party leadership. The few existing records of party conferences in the 19th century Senate are held in private collections. Memoirs and other secondary sources reveal the identities of party conference or caucus chairmen for some, but not all, Congresses after about 1850; these posts, however, carried very little authority. It was not uncommon for Senators to publicly declare that within the Senate parties there was no single leader. Rather, through the turn of the 20th century, individuals who led the CRS-3 Senate achieved their position through recognized personal attributes, including persuasion and oratory skills, rather than election or appointment to official leadership posts. The development of Senate party floor leaders was, like in the House, one of slow evolution, linked for the most part to the post of conference chairman. Not until 1945 did Senate Republicans specify that the conference chairmanship and floor leader posts must be held by separate Senators. Among Senate Democrats, the floor leader is also chairman of the conference. In many secondary sources, Senators are identified as “floor leaders” before existing party conference records so identify them. In this report, footnotes to the tables attempt to clarify when a leader was identified through official sources such as caucus minutes or identified through secondary sources. Another problem in identifying party leaders in early Congresses is the matter of party affiliation. Secondary sources reporting on party leaders often relied upon the information compiled in early editions of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. As the editors of the 1989 edition of the Biographical Directory noted: The most serious source of error and confusion in previous editions [of the Biographical Directory] were [sic] the designations of party affiliation. Many of the party labels added to the editions of 1913 and 1928 were anachronistic, claiming for the two modern parties Senators and Representatives elected to Congress before the [modern] Democratic or Republican parties existed. Other entries ignored the frequent shifts in party affiliation during the nineteenth century or omitted reference to short-lived and regional political parties and thus failed to reflect the vigor and diversity of nineteenth-century politics.1 The 1989 and 1997 editions of the Biographical Directory resolved these differences, and their designations of party affiliations are principal sources for this report. The 1997 edition of the Biographical Directory, in particular, included more complete notations where Members changed their party affiliations while serving in Congress.2 The main source for early party affiliations of Senators, principally Presidents Pro Tempore, is volume four of Senator Robert C. Byrd’s The Senate, 1789-1989. (Historical Statistics, 1789-1992).3 1 U.S. Congress, Senate, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774-1989: the Continental Congress, September 5, 1774, to October 21, 1788, and The Congress of the United States, from the First through the One Hundredth Congresses, March 4, 1789, to January 3, 1989, inclusive, Bicentennial edition, S. Doc. 100-34, 100th Congress, 2nd session (Washington: GPO, 1989), p. 3. 2 Biographical Directory of the American Congress 1774-1996 (Washington: CQ Staff Directories, Inc., 1997), p. xi. This commercially published edition of the Biographical Directory is a continuation of earlier, publicly published editions. An online, updated, version is also available at [http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp]. 3 Robert C. Byrd, The Senate, 1789-1989, A U.S. Senate Bicentennial publication, S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Congress, 1st session (Washington: GPO, 1993), vol. 4, Historical (continued...) CRS-4 An appendix explains the abbreviations used to denote party affiliations in this report. Leadership Posts Excluded The tables in this report do not list all Senators and Representatives who have held all leadership posts. Some leadership posts are excluded in order to provide a manageable amount of data. Excluded from this report are the Senate and House party conference secretaries, and the chairs of such party committees as steering committees, policy committees, committees on committees, and campaign committees. Junior party whips are not identified. At least since the 1930s in the House, both parties have selected (or allowed the principal whip to designate) subordinate whips. The lack of adequate records makes it almost impossible to identify all deputy whips, regional whips, and zone whips who have been appointed in the last 70 years. Table 1. Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-2002 Speaker 3 Party/State Congress Dates Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg N/A–PA 1st April 1, 1789March 3, 1791 Jonathan Trumbull N/A–CT 2nd October 24,1791March 3, 1793 Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg N/A–PA 3rd December 2,1793March 3, 1795 Jonathan Dayton N/A–NJ 4th-5th December 7,1795March 3, 1799 Theodore Sedgwick N/A–MA 6th December 2,1799March 3, 1801 Nathaniel Macon N/A–NC 7th-9th December 7,1801March 3, 1807 Joseph B. Varnum N/A–MA 10th-11th October 26, 1807March 3, 1811 Henry Clay R(DR)–KY* 12th-13th November 4,1811January 19, 1814a Langdon Cheeves R(DR)–SC* 13th January 19, 1814March 3, 1815 (...continued) Statistics,1789-1992, 739 p. Hereafter, cited as Byrd’s Historical Statistics. See also, Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals: The Senate’s Presiding Officer,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, 3-6 September 1998. Hereafter, cited as Gamm and Smith, “Last Among Equals.” CRS-5 Speaker Party/State Congress Henry Clay R(DR)–KY* 14th-16th John W. Taylor R(DR)–NY* 16th November 15, 1820March 3, 1821 Philip Barbour R(DR)–VA* 17th December 4,1821March 3, 1827 Henry Clay R(DR)–KY* 18th December 3,1823March 6,1825b John W. Taylor R(DR)–NY* 19th December 5,1825March 3, 1827 Andrew Stevenson N/A–VA 20th December 3,1827March 3, 1829 Andrew Stevenson J–VA 21st-23rd December 7,1829June 2, 1834 N/A–TN 23rd J–TN 24th-25th December 7, 1835March 3, 1839 Robert M.T. Hunter W–VA 26th December 16,1839March 3, 1841 John White W–KY 27th May 31, 1841March 3, 1843 John W. Jones D–VA 28th December 4, 1843March 3, 1845 John W. Davis D–IN 29th December 1, 1845March 3, 1847 Robert C. Winthrop W–MA 30th December 6, 1847March 3, 1849 Howell Cobb D–GA 31st December 22, 1849March 3, 1851 Linn Boyd D–KY 32nd-33rd December 1, 1851March 3, 1855 Am—MAc 34th February 2, 1856March 3, 1857 James L. Orr D–SC 35th December 7, 1857March 3, 1859 William Pennington R–NJ 36th February 1, 1860March 3, 1861 Galusha A. Grow R–PA 37th July 4, 1861March 3, 1863 John Bell James K. Polk Nathaniel P. Banks Dates December 4,1815October 28, 1820 June 2, 1834March 3, 1835 CRS-6 Speaker Party/State Congress Dates Schuyler Colfax R–IN 38th-40th Theodore Pomeroy R–NY 40th March 3, 1869d James G. Blaine R–ME 41st-43rd March 4, 1869March 3, 1875 Michael C. Kerr D–IN 44th December 6, 1875Aug. 19, 1876e Samuel J. Randall D–PA 44th-46th December 4, 1876March 3, 1881 J. Warren Keifer R–OH 47th December 5, 1881March 3, 1883 John G. Carlisle D–KY 48th-50th December 3, 1883March 3, 1889 Thomas B. Reed R–ME 51st December 2, 1889March 3, 1891 Charles F. Crisp D–GA 52nd-53rd December 7, 1891March 3, 1895 Thomas B. Reed R–ME 54th-55th December 2, 1895March 3, 1899 David B. Henderson R–IA 56th-57th December 4, 1899March 3, 1903 Joseph G. Cannon R–IL 58th-61st November 9, 1903March 3, 1911 James B. (Champ) Clark D–MO 62nd-65th April 4, 1911March 3, 1919 Frederick H. Gillett R–MA 66th-68th May 19, 1919March 3, 1925 Nicholas Longworth R–OH 69th-71st December 7, 1925March 3, 1931 John N. Garner D–TX 72nd December 7, 1931March 3, 1933 Henry T. Rainey D–IL 73rd March 9, 1933August 19, 1934f Joseph W. Byrns D–TN 74th January 3, 1935June 4, 1936g William B. Bankhead D–AL 74th-76th June 4, 1936September 15,1940h Sam T. Rayburn D–TX 76th-79th September 16, 1940January 3, 1947 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. R–MA 80th December 7, 1863March 3, 1869 January 3, 1947January 3, 1949 CRS-7 Speaker Party/State Congress Dates Sam T. Rayburn D–TX 81st-82nd January 3, 1949January 3, 1953 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. R–MA 83rd January 3, 1953January 3, 1955 Sam T. Rayburn D–TX 84th-87th January 5, 1955November 16, 1961i John W. McCormack D–MA 87th-91st January 10, 1962January 3, 1971 Carl Albert D–OK 92nd-94th January 21, 1971January 3, 1977 Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. D–MA 95th-99th January 4, 1977January 3, 1987 James C. Wright, Jr. D–TX 100th-101st January 6, 1987June 6, 1989j Thomas S. Foley D–WA 101st-103rd June 6, 1989January 3, 1995 Newt Gingrich R–GA 104th-105th January 4, 1995January 3, 1999 J. Dennis Hastert R–IL 106th- January 6, 1999- * While the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies these Speakers as Republicans, the party designation “Democratic Republicans” is more widely used and familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be confused with the contemporary Republican Party, which did not emerge until the 1850s. A key to all party abbreviations can be found in the Appendix on page 35. a. Resigned from the House of Representatives, January 19, 1814. b. Resigned from the House of Representatives, March 6, 1825. c. Speaker Banks served in the House three separate times under three different party designations. In the 34th Congress, he served as an American Party Member. d. Elected Speaker, March 3, 1869 and served one day. e. Died in office, August 19, 1876. f. Died in office, August 19, 1934. g. Died in office, June 4, 1936. h. Died in office, September 15, 1940. i. Died in office, November 16, 1961. j. Resigned from the House of Representatives, June 6, 1989. CRS-8 Table 2: House Democratic Floor Leaders, 1899-2002 Floor Leader State Congress James D. Richardson TN 56th-57th 1899-1903 John Sharp Williams MS 58th-60th 1903-1908 st James B. (Champ) Clark MO 60 -61 1908-1911 Oscar W. Underwood AL 62nd-63rd 1911-1915 Claude Kitchin NC 64th-65th* 1915-1919 James B. (Champ) Clark MO 66th 1919-1921 Claude Kitchin NC 67 th 1921-1923 Finis J. Garrett IN 68th-70th 1923-1929 John N. Garner TX 71st 1929-1931 Henry T. Rainey IL 72nd* 1931-1933 rd* 1933-1935 Joseph W. Byrns TN 73 William B. Bankhead AL 74th* Sam T. Rayburn TX 75th-76th* 1937-September 16, 1940b John W. McCormack MA 76th-79th* September 16, 1940-1947c Sam T. Rayburn TX 80th 1947-1949 John W. McCormack MA 81st-82nd* 1949-1953 Sam T. Rayburn TX 83rd 1953-1955 John W. McCormack th 1935-June 4, 1936a MA th* 84 -87 1955-January 10, 1962d Carl Albert OK 87th-91st* January 10, 1962-1971e Thomas Hale Boggs LA 92nd* Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. MA 93rd-94th* James Wright * th Dates TX th 1971-1973f th* 95 -99 th st* Thomas S. Foley WA 100 -101 Richard A. Gephardt MO 101st-* 1973-1977 1977-1987 1987-June 6, 1989g June 14, 1989-h Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also Majority Leader. a. Elected Speaker, filling the vacancy caused by the death of Speaker Joseph W. Byrns. Records indicate that Representative John J. O’Connor of New York, chairman of the House Rules Committee, served as acting Majority Leader during the 14 remaining days of the 74th Congress. He does not, however, appear to have been formally elected Majority Leader at that time and therefore is not included in this list. At the commencement of the 75th Congress, Representatives Samuel T. (Sam) Rayburn, James F. O’Connor, John Rankin, and others competed for the post of Majority Leader, with Rep. Rayburn ultimately elected by the Democratic Caucus. b. Elected Speaker following the death of Speaker William B. Bankhead. c. Elected Majority Leader on September 16, 1940, to fill post made vacant by the election of Sam Rayburn as Speaker. d. Elected Speaker at the start of the 87th Congress, 2nd Session following the death of Sam Rayburn. CRS-9 e. Elected Majority Leader at commencement of the 87th Congress, 2nd Session when Majority Leader John McCormack was elected Speaker to succeed Speaker Rayburn. f. Disappeared on a flight from Anchorage to Juneau, Alaska, October 16, 1972. Presumed dead pursuant to House Resolution 1, 93rd Congress. g. Elected Speaker on June 6, 1989 following Speaker James C. Wright’s resignation from that post on the same date. h. Elected Majority Leader on June 14, 1989, to fill the post made vacant by the election of Thomas S. Foley to be Speaker on June 6, 1989. Table 3: House Republican Floor Leaders, 1899-2002 Floor Leader State Congress Sereno E. Payne NY 56th-61st* 1899-1911 James R. Mann IL 62nd-65th 1911-1919 Franklin W. Mondell th* WY 66 -67 1919-1923 Nicholas Longworth OH th* 1923-1925 John Q. Tilson CT 69th-71st* 1925-1931 Bertrand H. Snell NY 72nd-75th 1931-1939 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. * th Dates MA 68 th th 76 -79 th* 1939-1947 Charles Halleck IN 80 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 81st-82nd 1949-1953 Charles Halleck IN 83rd* 1953-1955 th 1947-1949 th 1955-1959 Joseph W. Martin, Jr. MA 84 - 85 Charles Halleck IN 86th-88th 1959-1965 Gerald R. Ford MI 89th-93rd 1965-December 6, 1973a John J. Rhodes AZ 93rd-96th December 7, 1973-1981 th rd Robert H. Michel IL 97 -103 Richard K. Armey TX 104th-* 1981-1995 1995- Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also Majority Leader. a. Resigned from the House of Representatives on December 6, 1973, after having been confirmed by the Senate to become Vice President to fill the post vacated by the resignation of Spiro T. Agnew. CRS-10 Table 4: House Democratic Whips, 1901-2002 Whip State Congress th Dates Oscar W. Underwood AL 56 James T. Lloyd MO 57th-60th 1901-1908a 61st-62nd 1909-1913 63rd 1913-1915 N/A* Thomas M. Bell GA * th N/A 64 -66 1901 th 1915-1921 William A. Oldfield AR 67th-70th 1921-November 19, 1928b John McDuffie AL 70th-72nd 1928-1933 Arthur Greenwood IN 73rd 1933-1935 Patrick J. Boland PA th 74 -77 Robert Ramspeck GA 77th-79th John J. Sparkman AL 79th 1946-1947 John W. McCormack MA th 80 1947-1949 J. Percy Priest TN 81st -82nd 1949-1953 John W. McCormack MA Carl Albert OK th 1935-May 18, 1942c 1942-December 31, 1945d rd 83 1953-1955 84th-87th th Thomas Hale Boggs LA 87 -91 Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr. MA 92nd John J. McFall CA 93rd-94th th 1962-1971 1971-1973 1973-1977 th John W. Brademas IN 95 -96 Thomas S. Foley WA 97th-99th th 1955-1962 st 1977-1981 1981-1987 st 1987-June 14, 1989e Tony Coelho CA 100 -101 William H. Gray, III PA 101st-102nd June 14, 1989 September 11, 1991f David E. Bonior MI 102nd-107th September 11, 1991gJanuary 15, 2002 Nancy Pelosi CA 107th January 15, 2002h* For these periods, there is no official record in the minutes of the Democratic Caucus or elsewhere of the name of the Democratic Whip. Some scholars believe that Thomas Bell may have been the whip from 1909 to 1919; others believe the whip for that period may have been John Nance Garner of Texas. See Randall B. Ripley, “The Party Whip Organizations in the United States House of Representatives,” American Political Science Review, vol. 58, September 1964, p. 504. a. Resigned from position as Democratic Whip, 1908 b. Died in office, November 19, 1928. c. Died in office, May 18, 1942. d. Resigned from the House of Representatives, December 31, 1945. e. Representative Tony Coelho was the first elected Democratic Whip. f. Resigned from the House of Representatives, September 11, 1991. g. Elected July 11, 1991, but did not assume position as House Democratic Whip until September 11, 1991. h. Pelosi was elected on October 10, 2001, but did not assume the position of House Democratic Whip until January 15, 2002, the date on which Bonior’s resignation as whip became effective. CRS-11 Table 5: House Republican Whips, 1897-2002 Whip State Congress th 1897-1905 1905-1909 James A. Tawney MN 55 -58 James E. Watson IN 59th-60th st 61 -62 nd John W. Dwight NY Charles H. Burke SD 63rd Charles M. Hamilton WY 64th-65th th Dates th 1909-1913 1913-1915 1915-1919 th 1919-1923 1923-1931 Harold Knutson MN 66 -67 Albert H. Vestal IN 68th-71st nd Carl G. Bachmann WV Harry L. Englebright CA 73rd-78th 1933-May 13, 1943a Leslie C. Arends IL 78th-93rd 1943-1975 Robert H. Michel IL 94th-96th 1975-1981 Trent Lott MS 72 th 97 -100 1931-1933 th st 1981-1989 Dick Cheney WY 101 1989-March 17, 1989b Newt Gingrich GA 101st-103rd March 22, 1989-1995b Tom DeLay TX 104th- 1995- a. Died in office, May 13, 1943. b. Representative Gingrich was elected House Republican Whip on March 22, 1989, following Representative Dick Cheney’s resignation from the House on March 17, 1989, to become Secretary of Defense. CRS-12 Table 6: House Democratic Caucus Chairmen, 1849-2002 Chairman James Thompson State Congress PA 31st 1849-1851 32nd 1851-1853 N/Aa Dates Edson B. Olds OH 33rd 1853-1855 George W. Jones TN 34th 1855-1857 35th 1857-1859 36th 1859-1861 37th-40th 1861-1869 N/Ab George S. Houston AL N/Ac William E. Niblackd IN 41st 1869-1871 Samuel J. Randalld PA 41st 1869-1871 42nd 1871-1873 N/Ae William E. Niblack IN 43rd 1873-1875 Lucius Q.C. Lamar MS 44th 1875-1877 Hiester Clymer PA 45th 1877-1879 John F. House TN 46th 1879-1881 47th 1881-1883 N/Af George W. Geddes OH 48th 1883-1885 J. Randolph Tucker VA 49th 1885-1887 Samuel S. Cox NY 50th 1887-1889g William S. Holman IN 51st-53rd 1889-1895 David B. Culberson TX 54th 1895-1897 James D. Richardson TN 55th 1897-1899 James Hay VA 56th-58th 1899-1905 Robert L. Henry TX 59th 1905-1907 Henry D. Clayton AL 60th-61st 1907-1911h Albert S. Burleson TX 62nd 1911-1913h A. Mitchell Palmer PA 63rd 1913-1915 E.W. Saunders VA 64th-65th 1915-1919 Arthur G. Dewalt PA 66th 1919-1921 Sam T. Rayburn TX 67th 1921-1923 Henry T. Rainey IL 68th 1923-1925 CRS-13 Chairman State Congress Dates Charles D. Carter OK 69th 1925-1927 Arthur Greenwood IN 70th 1927-1929 David Kincheloe KY 71st 1929-1930i William W. Arnold IL 72nd 1931-1933 Clarence F. Lea CA 73rd 1933-1935 Edward T. Taylor CO 74th 1935-1937 Robert L. Doughton NC 75th 1937-1939 John W. McCormack MA 76th 1939-September 16, 1940j Richard M. Duncan MO 77th 1941-1943 Harry Sheppard CA 78th 1943-1945 Jere Cooper TN 79th 1945-1947 Aime Forand RI 80th 1947-1949 Francis E. Walter PA 81st 1949-1951 Jere Cooper TN 82nd 1951-1953 Wilbur Mills AR 83rd 1953-1955 John J. Rooney NY 84th 1955-1957 Melvin Price IL 85th-86th 1957-1961 Francis E. Walter PA 87th-88th 1961-May 31, 1963k Albert Thomas TX 88th 1964-1965 Eugene Keogh NY 89th 1965-1967 Dan Rostenkowski IL 90th-91st 1967-1971 Olin Teague TX 92nd-93rd 1971-1975 Philip Burton CA 94th 1975-1977 Thomas S. Foley WA 95th-96th 1977-1981 Gillis W. Long LA 97th-98th 1981-1985 Richard Gephardt MO 99th-100th 1985-1989l William Gray PA 101st Steny H. Hoyer MD 101st-103rd June 21, 1989-1995l Vic Fazio CA 104th-105th 1995-1999 Martin Frost TX 106th- January 4-June 14, 1989m 1999 - CRS-14 a. No clear records remain for this Congress. Several Democratic Members offered the various organizing resolutions at the beginning of the Congress. b. No clear data for this period exist. c. No clear data for this period exist. Representative John Hickman nominated Representative F.P. Blair as Speaker in 1861, but no records show whether Hickman was caucus chair. d. Caucus records show Representative William B. Niblack and Representative Samuel J. Randall as both having served as chairman during the Congress, but no dates of service were specified. e. Representative Fernando Wood nominated the Democratic leadership slate in the House, but there is no other evidence to show he was elected caucus chairman. f. Available data show that Representative John F. House nominated Samuel J. Randall as the Democratic candidate for Speaker, the traditional role of the caucus chairman. Later data show Representative W.S. Rosecrans issuing the next call for a Democratic Caucus meeting, but there is no evidence to suggest that Rosecrans was actually elected caucus chairman. g. Former Parliamentarian Clarence Cannon’s notes state that “[Representative Samuel J.] Cox died during this Congress and [Representative James B.] McCreary evidently succeeded or acted for him.” However, Representative Cox died on September 10, 1889, six months after the sine die adjournment of the 50th Congress and the convening of the 51st Congress. h. Caucus records are contradictory for this period. They show the election of Representative James Hay as chairman on January 19, 1911, but do not mention a resignation by incumbent chairman Henry P. Clayton, nor do they specify that Hay was elected chairman for the new Congress. Later, they show the election of Representative Albert S. Burleson on April 11, 1911. i. Resigned from the House, October 5, 1930; there is no record of an election to fill the vacancy as caucus chair. j. Resigned following election as majority floor leader, September 16, 1940; records do not indicate that a successor was chosen during the remainder of the Congress. k. Died in office, May 31, 1963. Caucus chairmanship post vacant until January 21, 1964. l. Representative Steny H. Hoyer was elected Caucus Chairman on June 21, 1989, following the June 14, 1989 election of Representative William H. Gray as Democratic Whip. Also on June 21, Representative Richard Gephardt was elected Majority Leader. .m Representative William Gray was elected Democratic Whip on June 14, 1989. CRS-15 Table 7: House Republican Conference Chairmen, 1863-2002 Chairman Justin S. Morrill a State VT N/Ab c Congress th 38 -39 th Dates 1863-1867 40th 1867-1869 st Robert C. Schenck OH 41 1869-1871 Nathaniel P. Banksc MA 41st 1869-1871 Austin Blair MI 42nd 1871-1873 Horace Maynard TN rd 43 1873-1875 George W. McCrary IA 44th 1875-1877 th Eugene Hale ME 45 1877-1879 William P. Frye ME 46th 1879-1881 th 1881-1883 G.M. Robeson NJ 47 Joseph G. Cannon IL 48th-50th 1883-1889 IL st 51 -53 rd 1889-1895 Charles H. Grosvenor OH th 54 -55 th 1895-1899 Joseph G. Cannon IL 56th-57th 1899-1903 T.J. Henderson th th 1903-1909 1909-1913 William P. Hepburn IA 58 -60 F.D. Currier NH 61st-62nd rd th 1913-1919 1919-1923 William S. Greene MA 63 -65 Horace M. Towner IA 66th-67th th Sydney Anderson MN 68 1923-1925 Willis C. Hawley OR 69th-72nd 1925-1933 Robert Luce MA 73rd 1933-1935 th 1935-1937 Frederick R. Lehlbach NJ 74 Roy Woodruff MI 75th-81st nd 1951-1957 1957-1963 Clifford Hope KS 82 -84 Charles Hoeven IA 85th-87th th Gerald R. Ford MI 88 Melvin Laird WI 89th-90th John B. Anderson IL st 91 -95 1963-1965 th th Samuel L. Devine OH 96 Jack Kempd NY 97th-99th d 1937-1951 th th 1965-1969 1969-1979 1979-1981 1981-June 4, 1987 Dick Cheney WY 100 1987-1989 Jerry Lewis CA 101st-102nd 1989-1993 rd Richard K. Armey TX 103 1993-1995 John A. Boehner OH 104th-105th 1995-1999 J.C. Watts OK th 106 - 1999- CRS-16 a. Representative Justin S. Morrill is the first officially designated Republican caucus chairman. There exists no clear evidence of formal chairmanships of Republican organizations in earlier Congresses. b. Caucus minutes show three Members (Representatives Nathaniel Banks of Massachusetts, Luke Poland of Vermont, and Samuel Hooper of Massachusetts) chairing three separate meetings. c. Caucus minutes show Representative Robert C. Schenck elected chairman, but Representative Nathaniel P. Banks chairing two early meetings, possibly in Schenck’s absence. d. On June 4, 1987, Representative Dick Cheney was elected Conference Chair to succeed Representative Jack Kemp, who resigned from the post. CRS-17 Table 8: Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1789-2002 Partya Name State Congress st Date Elected John Langdon Pro-Admin/ Anti-Admin/ R(DR) NH 1 April 6, 1789 Richard Henry Lee Anti-Admin VA 2nd April 18, 1792 John Langdon Pro-Admin/ Anti-Admin/ R(DR) NH 2nd November 5, 1792 NH 2nd March 1, 1793 rd John Langdon Ralph Izard Pro-Admin SC 3 May 31, 1794 Henry Tazewell Anti-Admin/ R(DR) VA 3rd February 20, 1795 VA 4th December 7, 1795 th Henry Tazewell Samuel Livermore Pro-Admin/ F NH 4 William Bingham F PA 4th th May 6, 1796 February 16, 1797 William Bradford Pro-Admin/ F RI 5 July 6, 1797 Jacob Read F SC 5th November 22, 1797 th Theodore Sedgwick F MA 5 June 27, 1789 John Laurance F NY 5th December 6, 1789 th James Ross Pro-Admin/ F PA 5 March 1, 1799 Samuel Livermore Pro-Admin/ F NH 6th December 22, 1799 Uriah Tracy F CT 6th May 14, 1800 th John E. Howard F MD 6 November 21, 1800 James Hillhouse F CT 6th February 28, 1801 th Abraham Baldwin R GA 7 December 7, 1801 Stephen R. Bradley Anti-Admin/ R(DR) VT 7th December 14, 1802 VT 7th February 25, 1803 VT 7 th March 2, 1803 KY 8th October 17, 1803 th Stephen R. Bradley Stephen R. Bradley John Brown Anti-Admin John Brown Anti-Admin KY 8 January 23, 1804 Jesse Franklin R(DR) NC 8th March 10, 1804 th Joseph Anderson R(DR) TN 8 January 15, 1805 Joseph Anderson R(DR) TN 8th February 28, 1805 th Joseph Anderson R(DR) TN 8 Samuel Smith R(DR)/J MD 9th MD th March 18, 1806 th March 2, 1807 Samuel Smith Samuel Smith MD 9 9 March 2, 1805 December 2, 1805 CRS-18 Name Partya Samuel Smith State Congress MD 10th th Date Elected April 16, 1808 Stephen R. Bradley Anti-Admin/ R(DR) VT 10 December 28, 1808 John Milledge R(DR) GA 10th January 30, 1809 Andrew Gregg R(DR) PA 11th June 26, 1809 SC th 11 February 28, 1810 SC 11th April 17, 1810 th John Gaillard R(DR)/J John Gaillard John Pope R(DR) KY 11 February 23, 1811 William H. Crawford R(DR) GA 12th March 24, 1812 Joseph B. Varnum R(DR) MA 13th December 6, 1813 John Gaillard R(DR)/J th SC 13 April 18, 1814 John Gaillard SC 13th November 25, 1814 b John Gaillard SC 14th [no election] John Gaillard SC 15th March 6, 1817 SC th 15 March 31, 1918 VA 15th February 15, 1819 VA th [no election] SC th 16 January 25, 1820 SC 17th February 1, 1822 John Gaillard SC th 17 John Gaillard SC 18th SC th 19 March 9, 1825 NC 19th May 20, 1826 Nathaniel Macon NC th 19 Nathaniel Macon NC 19th MD th May 15, 1828 st John Gaillard James Barbour R(DR) James Barbour John Gaillard R(DR)/J John Gaillard John Gaillard Nathaniel Macon Samuel Smith R(DR)/J R(DR)/J 16 20 February 19, 1823 May 21, 1824 January 2, 1827 March 2, 1827 Samuel Smith MD 21 March 13, 1829 Samuel Smith MD 21st May 29, 1830 MD st 21 March 1, 1831 VA 22nd July 9, 1832 TN nd 22 TN 23rd rd Samuel Smith Littleton Tazewell Hugh L. White JR/J J/AJ/W Hugh L. White December 3, 1832 [no election] George Poindexter J/AJ MS 23 June 28, 1834 John Tyler J/AJ VA 23rd March 3, 1835 William R. King R(DR)J/D AL 24th July 1, 1836 William R. King AL th 24 January 28, 1837 William R. King AL 25th March 7, 1837 CRS-19 Partya Name State Congress AL 25th William R. King AL th 25 July 2, 1838 William R. King AL 25th February 25, 1839 William R. King AL 26th July 3, 1840 William R. King AL th 26 March 3, 1841 William R. King AL 27th March 4, 1841 th William R. King Date Elected October 13, 1837 Samuel Southard R(DR)W NJ 27 March 11, 1841 Willie P. Mangum J/AJ/W NC 27th May 31, 1842 NC th 28 [no election] Willie P. Mangum Ambrose H. Sevier J/D AR 29th December 27, 1845c David R. Atchison D MO 29th August 8, 1846 th David R. Atchison D MO 29 January 11, 1847 David R. Atchison D MO 29th March 3, 1847 th David R. Atchison D MO 30 February 2, 1848 David R. Atchison D MO 30th June 1, 1848 th David R. Atchison D MO 30 June 26, 1848 David R. Atchison D MO 30th July 29, 1848 th David R. Atchison D MO 30 David R. Atchison D MO 30th March 2, 1849 MO st March 5, 1849 st David R. Atchison D 31 December 26, 1848 David R. Atchison D MO 31 March 16, 1849 William R. King R(DR)J/D AL 31st May 6, 1850 William R. King AL st 31 July 11, 1850 William R. King AL 32nd [no election] nd David R. Atchison D MO 32 David R. Atchison D MO 33rd rd December 20, 1852 March 4, 1853 Lewis Cass D MI 33 December 4, 1854 Jesse D. Bright D IN 33rd December 5, 1854 Jesse D. Bright D IN 34th June 11, 1856 th Charles E. Stuart D MI 34 June 9, 1856 James M. Mason D VA 34th January 6, 1857 th James M. Mason D VA 35 March 4, 1857 Thomas J. Rusk D TX 35th March 14, 1857 th Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 35 December 7, 1857 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 35th March 29, 1858 AL th June 14, 1858 th January 25, 1858 Benjamin Fitzpatrick Benjamin Fitzpatrick D D AL 35 35 CRS-20 Partya Name Benjamin Fitzpatrick D State Congress AL 36th th Date Elected March 9, 1859 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36 December 19, 1859 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36th February 20, 1860 Jesse D. Bright D IN 36th June 12, 1860 th June 26, 1860 Benjamin Fitzpatrick D AL 36 Solomon Foot W/OP/R VT 36th Solomon Foot VT th 37 March 23, 1861 Solomon Foot VT 37th July 18, 1861 Solomon Foot VT th 37 January 15, 1862 Solomon Foot VT 37th March 31, 1862 VT th June 19, 1862 th Solomon Foot 37 February 16, 1861 Solomon Foot VT 37 February 18, 1863 Solomon Foot VT 38th March 4, 1863 Solomon Foot VT th 38 December 18, 1863 Solomon Foot VT 38th February 23, 1864 VT th 38 April 11, 1864 NH 38th April 26, 1864 th Solomon Foot Daniel Clark R Daniel Clark R NH 38 February 9, 1865 Lafayette S. Foster OP/R CT 39th March 7, 1865 OH th March 2, 1867 th Benjamin F. Wade W/OP/R Benjamin F. Wade Henry B. Anthony R 39 OH 40 [no election] RI 41st March 23, 1869 st Henry B. Anthony R RI 41 April 9, 1869 Henry B. Anthony R RI 41st May 28, 1870 st Henry B. Anthony R RI 41 Henry B. Anthony R RI 41st nd July 1, 1870 July 14, 1870 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42 March 10, 1871 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd April 17, 1871 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd May 23, 1871 nd Henry B. Anthony R RI 42 December 21, 1871 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd February 23, 1872 nd Henry B. Anthony R RI 42 June 8, 1872 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd December 4, 1872 nd Henry B. Anthony R RI 42 December 13, 1872 Henry B. Anthony R RI 42nd December 20, 1872 RI nd Henry B. Anthony Matthew H. Carpenter R R WI 42 rd 43 January 24, 1873 March 12, 1873 CRS-21 Partya Name Matthew H. Carpenter R State Congress WI 43rd rd Date Elected March 26, 1873 Matthew H. Carpenter R WI 43 December 11, 1873 Matthew H. Carpenter R WI 43rd December 23, 1874 Henry B. Anthony R RI 43rd January 25, 1875 rd Henry B. Anthony R RI 43 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 44th th Thomas W. Ferry R MI 44 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 44th th February 15, 1875 March 9, 1875 March 19, 1875 December 20, 1875 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 45 March 5, 1877 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 45th February 26, 1878 MI th April 17, 1878 th Thomas W. Ferry R 45 Thomas W. Ferry R MI 45 March 3, 1879 Allen G. Thurman D OH 46th April 15, 1879 th Allen G. Thurman D OH 46 Allen G. Thurman D OH 46th th April 7, 1880 May 6, 1880 Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. D DE 47 October 10, 1881 David Davis I IL 47th October 13, 1881 th George F. Edmonds R VT 47 George F. Edmonds R VT 48th OH th December 7, 1885 th February 25, 1887 John Sherman R 49 John J. Ingalls R KS 49 John J. Ingalls R KS 50th st March 3, 1883 January 14, 1884 [no election] John J. Ingalls R KS 51 March 7, 1889 John J. Ingalls R KS 51st April 2, 1889 st John J. Ingalls R KS 51 February 28, 1890 John J. Ingalls R KS 51st April 3, 1890d Charles F. Manderson R NE 51st March 2, 1891 Charles F. Manderson R NE 52nd [no election] Charles F. Manderson R NE 53rd [no election] rd Isham G. Harris D TN 53 March 22, 1893 Matt W. Ransom D NC 53rd January 7, 1895 rd January 10, 1895 February 7, 1896 Isham G. Harris D TN 53 William P. Frye R ME 54th th William P. Frye R ME 55 [no election] William P. Frye R ME 56th [no election] ME th March 7, 1901 th [no election] William P. Frye William P. Frye R R ME 57 58 CRS-22 Partya Name William P. Frye R State Congress ME 59th th Date Elected [no election] William P. Frye R ME 60 December 5, 1907 William P. Frye R ME 61st [no election] William P. Frye R ME 62nd [no election] nd Charles Curtis R KS 62 December 4, 1911 Augustus O. Bacon D GA 62nd January 15, 1912 nd Jacob H. Gallinger R NH 62 February 12, 1912 Henry Cabot Lodge R MA 62nd March 25, 1912 nd Frank B. Brandegee R CT 62 James P. Clarke D AR 63rd AR th December 6, 1915 th December 14, 1916 James P. Clarke D 64 Willard Saulsbury, Jr. D DE 64 Willard Saulsbury, Jr. D DE 65th th May 25, 1912 March 13, 1913 [no election] Albert B. Cummins R IA 66 May 19, 1919 Albert B. Cummins R IA 67th March 7, 1921 th Albert B. Cummins R IA 68 [no election] Albert B. Cummins R IA 69th [no election] th George H. Moses R NH 69 George H. Moses R NH 70th NH st [no election] nd George H. Moses R 71 March 6, 1925 December 15, 1927 George H. Moses R NH 72 [no election] Key Pittman D NV 73rd March 9, 1933 Key Pittman D NV 74th January 7, 1935 th Key Pittman D NV 75 [no election] Key Pittman D NV 76th [no election] th William H. King D UT 76 November 19, 1940 Pat Harrison D MS 77th January 6, 1941 VA th July 10, 1941 th Carter Glass D 77 Carter Glass D VA 78 January 5, 1943 Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 79th January 6, 1945 th Arthur Vandenberg R MI 80 January 4, 1947 Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 81st January 3, 1949 nd Kenneth D. McKellar D TN 82 [no election] Styles Bridges R NH 83rd January 3, 1953 th Walter F. George D GA 84 January 5, 1955 Carl T. Hayden D AZ 85th January 3, 1957 CRS-23 Partya Name Carl T. Hayden D State Congress Date Elected AZ 86th [no election] th Carl T. Hayden D AZ 87 [no election] Carl T. Hayden D AZ 88th [no election] Carl T. Hayden D AZ 89th [no election] th Carl T. Hayden D AZ 90 [no election] Richard B. Russell, Jr. D GA 91st January 3, 1969 nd Richard B. Russell, Jr. D GA 92 [no election] Allen J. Ellender D LA 92nd January 22, 1971 nd James O. Eastland D MS 92 James O. Eastland D MS 93rd [no election] MS th [no election] th James O. Eastland D 94 July 28, 1972 James O. Eastland D MS 95 [no election] Warren G. Magnuson D WA 96th January 15, 1979 th Milton R. Young R ND 96 Strom Thurmond ID/D/R SC 97th Strom Thurmond SC th 98 [no election] Strom Thurmond SC 99th [no election] th December 4, 1980 January 5, 1981 John C. Stennis D MS 100 January 6, 1987 Robert C. Byrd D WV 101st January 3, 1989 WV nd [no election] rd [no election] Robert C. Byrd D 102 Robert C. Byrd D WV 103 Strom Thurmond R SC 104th th January 4, 1995 Strom Thurmond R SC 105 [no election] Strom Thurmond R SC 106th [no election] e th January 3, 2001 January 3, 2001 Robert C. Byrd D WV 107 Strom Thurmonde R SC 107th f Robert C. Byrd D WV th 107 June 6, 2001 Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, pp. 647 - 653. Until 1890, the Senate elected a President pro tempore whenever the Vice President was not in attendance, whether for a day, or permanently, as in the case of the Vice President’s death or resignation. When the Vice President returned, the President pro tempore lost his place. Then when the Vice President was again absent, the Senate again elected a President pro tempore, in many cases the same Senator who had been chose before. By the standing order agreed to on March 12, 1890, the Senate declared that the President pro tempore shall hold the office during “the pleasure of the Senate and until another is elected, and shall execute the duties thereof during all future absences of the Vice President until the Senate does otherwise order.” a. A key to party abbreviations can be found in the Appendix on page 35. b. Senator John Gaillard was elected after the death of Vice President Elbridge Gerry on November 23, 1814, and continued to serve throughout the 14th Congress, as there was no vice president. CRS-24 c. There was no actual election. Senator Ambrose H. Sevier was “permitted to occupy the chair for the day.” In their table of Presidents pro tempore, Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith do not include Sevier’s service. See Gerald Gamm and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals,” “Table 1: Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate.” d. As noted above, in March 1890, the Senate adopted a resolution stating that Presidents pro tempore would hold office continuously until the election of another President pro tempore, rather than being elected only for the period in which the Vice President was absent. That system has continued to the present. e. At the start of the 107th Congress, Republican George W. Bush had been elected President, Richard B. Cheney Vice-President, and the Senate was evenly divided, 50 Democrats and 50 Republicans. However Vice President-elect Cheney would not be sworn in until January 20, 2001. Thus, when Congress convened on January 3, 2001, Vice President Al Gore, a Democrat, remained as president of the Senate, providing Senate Democrats with an effective majority of one. On January 3, 2001, the Senate adopted S. Res. 3, which provided for the election of Senator Robert C. Byrd, Democrat of West Virginia, to serve as President pro tempore from January 3 until the inauguration of President Bush and Vice President Cheney at noon on January 20, at which time Senator Strom Thurmond, Republican of South Carolina, would assume the office of President pro tempore. See “Election of the Honorable Robert C. Byrd as President Pro Tempore and Election of the Honorable Strom Thurmond as President Pro Tempore,” Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 147, January 3, 2001, pp. S6-S7. f. Party control in the Senate shifted with the decision in May 2001 of Senator Jim Jeffords (VT) to leave the Republican party and to become an Independent, caucusing with Senate Democrats. On June 6, the Senate agreed to S. Res. 100 electing Senator Byrd President pro tempore once again. CRS-25 Table 9: Deputy Presidents Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1977-2002 Deputy President Pro Tempore Party—State Congress Dates Hubert H. Humphreya D—MN 95th January 5, 1977January 13, 1978 George J. Mitchellb D—ME 100th January 28, 1987November 29, 1988c a. Pursuant to S. Res. 17, agreed to January 10, 1977, the Senate established (effective January 5, 1977) the post of Deputy President pro tempore of the Senate to be held by “any Member of the Senate who has held the Office of President of the United States or Vice President of the United States.” Senator Hubert H. Humphrey held this position until his death on January 13, 1978. b. On January 28, 1987, the Senate agreed to S. Res. 90, authorizing the Senate to designate a Senator to serve as Deputy President pro tempore during the 100th Congress, in addition to Senators who hold such office under the authority of S. Res. 17, 95th Congress. Accordingly, on the same date the Senate agreed to S. Res. 91, designating Senator George H. Mitchell Deputy President pro tempore. c. On November 29, 1988, Senator Mitchell was elected Majority Leader for the 101st Congress. Table 10: Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore of the Senate, 1964-2002 Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore Lee Metcalfa Party—State D—MT Congress Dates 88th-95th February 7, 1964January 12, 1978 a. This post was initially established in 1963 upon the adoption of S. Res. 232 and S. Res. 238 making Senator Lee Metcalf Acting President pro tempore from December 9, 1963, until the meeting of the second regular session of the 88th Congress. When the position of Vice President became vacant upon the death of President John F. Kennedy, the added constitutional responsibilities imposed on then- President pro tempore Carl Hayden moved the Senate to agree on February 7, 1964 to S. Res. 296, authorizing Senator Metcalf “to perform the duties of the Chair as Acting President pro tempore until otherwise ordered by the Senate.” Senator Metcalf continued to hold the post throughout his remaining 14 years in the Senate. CRS-26 Table 11: Senate Democratic Floor Leaders and Conference Chairmen, 1903-2002 Floor Leader Arthur P. Gormana State Congress MD 58th-59th Dates 1903-1906 th 1906-1907 Joseph C.S. Blackburn KY 59 Charles A. Culberson TX 60th 1907-1909 Hernando D. Money MS 61st 1909-1911 Thomas S. Martin VA 62nd John Worth Kern rd b 1911-1913 IN th* 63 -64 1913-1917 Thomas S. Martin VA 65th-66th* 1917-1919 Oscar W. Underwoodc AL 66th-67th 1920-1923 Joseph T. Robinson AR 68th-75th 73rd-75th* 1923-1937 Alben W. Barkley KY 75th-79th* 80th 1937-1949 Scott W. Lucas IL 81st* 1949-1951 Ernest W. McFarland AZ 82nd* 1951-1953 Lyndon B. Johnson TX 83rd 84 -86th* 1953-1961 87th-94th* 1961-1977 th Mike Mansfield MT th th* Robert C. Byrd, Jr. WV 95 -96 97th-99th 100th* 1977-1989 George J. Mitchell ME 101st-103rd* 1989-1995 Tom Daschle SD th 104 - 1995- Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 503. The Democratic Leader holds two posts in modern practice: floor leader and chairman of the party conference. Since 1945, by comparison, Senate Republicans have required that one individual not hold both positions. Initially the Senate Democratic Caucus, the name was officially changed to Democratic Conference in 1925. * Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also Majority Leader. a. Press reports and secondary sources generally identified Senator Arthur P. Gorman as Democratic Caucus chairman from 1893-1898, Senator John T. Morgan as chairman from 1901-1902, and Senator James K. Jones as chairman from 1902-1903. However, caucus minutes are not available during this time period for confirmation. b. Secondary sources generally identify Senator John Worth Kern as the first “floor leader” in the modern sense of the term. c. Senator Oscar W. Underwood is the first person to be actually called “floor leader” in minutes of the party conference. CRS-27 Table 12: Senate Republican Floor Leaders, 1911-2002 Floor Leader State Congress Dates Shelby M. Cullom# IL 62nd Jacob H. Gallinger# NH 63rd-65th Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.# MA 65th 66 -68th* 1918-November 9, 1924b 1911-1913 1913-Aug. 17, 1918a th Charles Curtis# KS 68th-70th* 1924-1929c James E. Watson# IN 71st-72nd* 1929-1933 Charles L. McNary# OR 73rd-78th 1933-February 25, 1944d Wallace H. White, Jr. ME 79th 80th* Kenneth S. Wherry NE 81st-82nd Styles Bridges NH 82nd 1952-1953 Robert A. Taft OH 83rd* 1953-July 31, 1953f William F. Knowland CA 83rd* 84th-85th 1953-1959 Everett Dirksen IL 86th-91st 1959-September 7, 1969g Hugh Scott PA 91st-94th 1969-1977 Howard H. Baker TN 95th-96th 97th-98th* 1977-1985 Robert H. Dole KS 99th* 100th-103rd 104th* Trent Lott MS 104th*- 1945-1949 1949-November 29, 1951e 1985-June 11, 1996h June 12, 1996i Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 505. * Indicates Congresses in which the floor leader was also Majority Leader. # Indicates conference chairman. a. Died in office, August 17, 1918. b. Died in office, November 9, 1924. c .Senator Charles Curtis is referred to as “floor leader” in the minutes of the Republican conference, the first such chairman of the caucus to be so identified. d. Senator Charles L. McNary died on February 25, 1944. There is no reference in congressional sources to the formal selection of a new Republican floor leader during the 78th Congress. Senator Wallace H. White, Jr. appears, at least, to have been acting floor leader, even to the extent of occupying the front aisle Republican seat opposite Majority Leader Alben W. Barkley. Floyd M. Riddick in his article summarizing “The Second Session of the SeventyEighth Congress (January 10-December 18, 1944),” American Political Science Review, vol. 39, April 1945, pp. 317-336, makes no mention of McNary’s death or the selection of a successor. e. Died in office, November 29, 1951. f. Died in office, July 31, 1953. g. Died in office, September 7, 1969. h. Resigned from Senate, June 11, 1996. i. Elected June 12, 1996 to replace Senator Robert H. Dole. CRS-28 Table 13: Senate Republican Conference Chairmen, 1893-2002 Chairman State Congress rd th Dates John Sherman OH 53 -54 1893-1897 William B. Allison IA 55th-56th 1897-1901 Eugene Hale ME 57th 1901-1902 Orville Platt CT 57 th 1902-1903 Eugene Hale ME 58th 1903-1904 William B. Allison IA 58th-59th 1904-1906 Eugene Hale ME 59th 1906-1907 th 1908-1909 Nelson W. Aldrich RI 60 Eugene Hale ME 60th-61st 1909-1910 Shelby Cullom IL 61st-62nd 1910-1913 Jacob H. Gallinger NH 63rd-65th 1913-1918 th th Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. MA 65 -68 1918-1924 Charles Curtis KS 68th-70th 1924-1929 James E. Watson IN 71st-72nd 1929-1932 Charles L. McNary OR 73rd-78th 1933-1944 th Arthur H. Vandenberg MI 79 Eugene D. Millikin CO 80th-84th 1947-1956 Leverett Saltonstall MA 85th-89th 1957-1966 Margaret Chase Smith ME th 1945-1946 nd 90 -92 rd 1967-1972 Norris Cotton NH 93 Carl T. Curtis NE 94th-95th 1975-1978 Robert Packwood OR 96th 1979-1980 ID th James A. McClure 1973-1974 th 97 -98 th st 1981-1984 John Chafee RI 99 -101 1985-1990 Thad Cochran MS 102nd-104th 1991-1996 Connie Mack FL 105th-106th 1997-2000 Richard J. Santorum PA th 107 - 2001- Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 502. Records of the Republican Conference are extant only from 1911. Secondary sources provide information for years prior to 1893. Rothman, in his work, claims that Senator Henry B. Anthony served as Republican Caucus chairman for an undetermined number of years beginning in 1869 and that Senator George Franklin Edmunds served as chairman from 1885-1891. CRS-29 Table 14: Senate Democratic Whips, 1913-2002 Whip State Congress James Hamilton Lewisa IL 63rd-65th 1913-1919 Peter G. Gerry RI 66th-70th 1919-1929 st nd Dates Morris Sheppard TX 71 -72 1929-1933 James Hamilton Lewis IL 73rd-75th 1933-1939 Sherman Minton IN 76th 1939-1941 J. Lister Hill AL 77th-79th 1941-1947 b IL 80 th Scott W. Lucas 1947-1949 Francis J. Myers PA 81st 1949-1951 Lyndon B. Johnsonb TX 82nd 1951-1953 Earle C. Clements KY 83rd-84th b th th 1953-1957 Mike Mansfield MT 85 -86 1957-1961 Hubert H. Humphrey MN 87th-88th 1961-1965 Russell B. Long LA 89th-90th 1965-1969 Edward M. Kennedy MA 91st 1969-1971 Robert C. Byrd, Jr. nd b WV th 92 -94 1971-1977 Alan Cranston CA 95th-101st 1977-1991 Wendell H. Ford KY 102nd-105th 1991-1999 Harry Reid NV th 106 - 1999 - Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 509. a. Representative James Hamilton Lewis was elected the first Democratic Party whip in 1913. b. Advanced to party leader. CRS-30 Table 15: Senate Republican Whips, 1915-2002 Whip State Congress James W. Wadsworth, Jr. NY 64th Charles Curtis KS 64th-68th Dates 1915 th th 1915-1924 Wesley L. Jones WA 68 -70 1924-1929 Simeon D. Fess OH 71st-72nd 1929-1933 Felix Hebert RI 73rd 1933-1935 Kenneth S. Wherrya NE 78th-80th st th 1944-1949 Leverett Saltonstall MA 81 -84 1949-1957 Everett M. Dirksen IL 85th 1957-1959 Thomas H. Kuchel CA 86th-90th 1959-1969 Hugh D. Scott PA 91st Robert P. Griffin st 1969 MI th 91 -94 1969-1977 Ted Stevens AK 95th-98th 1977-1985 Alan K. Simpson WY 99th-103rd 1985-1995 Trent Lott MS 104th 1995-June 12, 1996b Don Nickles OK 104th- June 12, 1996-c Note: The principal source for this table is Byrd’s Historical Statistics, p. 509. a. Between 1936 and 1943 the post of Republican Whip was filled by informal, irregular appointment by the Republican Leader. b. Elected Majority Leader, June 12, 1996. c. Elected to replace Senator Trent Lott as Senate Democrat Whip, June 12, 1996. CRS-31 Appendix: Political Party Abbreviations Adams Adams-Clay F Adams-Clay R AJ Am Anti-Admin C CRR D F FL FS I ID IR J JR L LR N N/A NR OP PO PR Pro-Admin R R(DR)* RA S SR U UU W Adams Adams-Clay Federalist Adams-Clay Republican Anti-Jackson American (Know-Nothing) Anti-Administration Conservative Crawford Republican Democrat Federalist Farmer-Labor Free Soil Independent Independent Democrat Independent Republican Jacksonian Jacksonian Republican Liberty Liberal Republican Nullifier Party Unknown or No Party Affiliation National Republican Opposition Populist Progressive Pro-Administration Republican Jeffersonian, Jeffersonian Republican, or Democratic Republican Readjuster Silver Silver Republican Unionist Unconditional Unionist Whig Note: This table is derived from Robert C. Byrd, The Senate, 1789-1989, A U.S. Senate Bicentennial publication, S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Congress, 1stsession, (Washington: GPO, 1993), vol. 4, Historical Statistics, 1789-1992, p. xiii. * While the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 identifies the party affiliation of certain Representatives in early Congresses as Republicans, the designation “Democratic Republican” is more familiar to readers. This designation, R(DR), should not be confused with the contemporary Republican Party which did not emerge until the 1850s. CRS-32 Source Notes and Bibliography This report relies heavily on primary congressional sources and authoritative documents such as the privately printed Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774 to 1996, and Congress’s similar online version, the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to the Present. In addition, over the years, individual Members of Congress, legislative aides, and scholars have gained limited access to party conference journals. Reliable leadership lists have been compiled from these sources. Where these have been published, they have been used as a source in this report. No attempts by CRS were made to gain access to caucus or conference minutes in collecting data for this report. This report also relies upon secondary sources developed by scholars. Inevitably, there are conflicting interpretations of data, even among sources generally accepted as reliable. For example, there are disparities on the dates of elections and tenure of Senate Presidents Pro Tempore between Byrd’s history, the 1911 Senate document, and Gamm and Smith’s research. We have attempted to footnote these contradictions where they occur. Unless otherwise noted, the following sources were used to compile the tables in this report: Berdahl, Clarance, “Some Notes on Party Membership in Congress,” American Political Science Review, vol. 43, April 1949: 309-332; June 1949: 492-508; and August 1949: 721-734. Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1996 (Washington: CQ Staff Directories Inc., 1997), 2108 p. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to the Present. Available online at [http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp]. Byrd, Robert C., The Senate, 1789-1989, vol. 1, Addresses on the History of the United States Senate, A U.S. Bicentennial publication, S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Congress, 1st session (Washington: GPO, 1988), 800 p. Byrd, Robert C., The Senate, 1789-1989, vol. 4, Historical Statistics, 1789-1992, A U.S. Senate Bicentennial publication, S. Doc. 100-20, 100th Congress, 1st session (Washington: GPO, 1993), 739 p. Cannon, Clarence, Cannon’s Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States,. (Washington: GPO, 1935-1941), 6 v. Cannon, Clarence, “Party History,” remarks in the appendix, Congressional Record, vol. 89, January 22, 1941: A383-384. Congressional Directory, (Washington: GPO, various years). Congressional Globe, (Washington: 1833-1873). CRS-33 Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, (Washington: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., various dates). Congressional Record, (Washington: GPO, 1873-present). Deshler, Lewis, Deschler’s Precedents of the United States House of Representatives, (Washington: GPO, 1977-1999), 14 v. Gamm, Gerald and Steven S. Smith, “Last Among Equals: The Senate’s Presiding Officer,” presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, September 3-6, 1998. Hinds, Asher, Hinds’ Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States, H. Doc. 59-355, 59th Congress, 2nd session (Washington: GPO, 19071908), 8 v. Walter J. Oleszek, Majority and Minority Whips in the Senate: History and Development of the Party Whip System in the U.S. Senate, S. Doc. 99-23, 99th Congress, 1st session (Washington: GPO, 1985), 28 p. Ripley, Randall B., Party Leadership in the House, (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1967), 221 p. Ripley, Randall B., “The Party Whip Organizations in the United States House of Representatives,” American Political Science Review, vol. 58, September 1964: 561-576. David Rothman, Politics and Power, (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1966), 348 p. U.S Congress. House. Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, 1789-present, various publishers. U.S. Congress. Senate. Journal of the Senate of the United States, 1789-present, various publishers. — Majority and Minority Leaders of the Senate: History and Development of the Offices of the Floor Leaders, S. Doc. 97-12, 97th Congress, 1st session, prepared by Floyd M. Riddick, (Washington: GPO, 1981), 24 p. — President of the Senate Pro Tempore, S. Doc. 62-101, 62nd Congress, 2nd session (Washington: GPO, 1911), 255 p. CRS Report 95-181. The President Pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate: History and Authority of the Office, by Richard C. Sachs.