Order Code 98-756 C CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: A Chronology, FY1970-2001 Updated November 21, 2000 Gary K. Reynolds Information Research Specialist Congressional Reference Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: A Chronology, FY1970-2001 Summary The passage of the Department of Defense (DOD) authorization and appropriation bills through Congress often does not follow the course laid out in textbooks on legislative procedure. Tracking DOD authorization or appropriation bills can often be confusing and time-consuming; this has been particularly true in recent years, when continuing resolutions containing the DOD and other appropriation bills have been passed in lieu of the traditional 13 appropriations bills for the entire U.S. government. This report is a research aid, which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriation bills (Table 2). This includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Table 3 shows real growth or decline in national defense funding for FY1940-2005. Table 4 shows the President’s DOD appropriations budget requests for FY1950-2001 vs. final amount enacted. Table 5 gives a more detailed picture of both regular and supplemental defense appropriations from the 104th Congress to the present (FY1995-FY2001). Finally, key definitions are included. This report will be updated as legislative activity warrants. Contents The DOD Authorization-Appropriations Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 List of Tables Table 1. Authorization Bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Table 2. Appropriation Bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 3. Real Growth/Decline in National Defense Funding, FY1940-FY2005 20 Table 4. Congressional Action on Annual Department of Defense Appropriations Requests: FY1950-2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Table 5. Defense Appropriations Since the 104th Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: A Chronology, FY1970-2001 The DOD Authorization-Appropriations Process The Congress oversees the defense budget primarily through two yearly bills: the defense authorization and defense appropriations bills. Tables 1 and 2 present the DOD authorization and appropriations bills. The authorization bill establishes the agencies responsible for defense and sets the policies under which money will be spent: it authorizes the money to be spent. The appropriations bill actually appropriates the money. Ideally, the authorization-appropriations process should proceed in an orderly sequence with each step of the process generating a part of the paper trail. All of these steps should be documented in the Congressional Record as well as in many other official documents of the Congress, in private publications such as Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report and United States Code and Congressional and Administrative News (USCCAN), and on the Internet [http://thomas.loc.gov/]. In the simplest case, the process begins with the President’s submitting his proposal (initially formulated by the Department of Defense and formally submitted by the President through the White House Office of Management and Budget) to the defense authorizing and appropriation committees Then, for example, for the defense authorization bill, hearings are held by the appropriate House committees and subcommittees. The bill is marked up and an authorization bill is reported out, usually with a written, numbered report. This bill is debated in the House, amended or not as the case may be, and passed by the House with the vote noted in the Congressional Record. In the simplest situation this bill would then be sent to the Senate, debated and passed. However, the Senate can amend the House bill or report out its own bill, debate, amend, and pass it. If each Chamber passes its own version, the stage is set for a conference committee to harmonize the two versions. This usually results in a printed conference report, which is then voted on by each Chamber to complete congressional action on the bill, which then is sent to the President for his consideration. Ideally, after the authorization bill is passed the appropriations bill goes through this same process. Although conceptually a sequential process, authorization and appropriations bills can be considered at the same time or even passed in reverse order. CRS-2 Other patterns also emerge. For instance, the Senate can report out a bill, then substitute the text of the Senate bill for the text of the bill passed by the House while retaining the House bill number. The House can also use this procedure. A Senate or House bill can also have part of the other chamber’s bill inserted into it, or can be so heavily amended that it is unclear whether it is the Senate or House bill that is really being passed. Other circumstances can also occur which make it hard to track a bill and its contents. Bills are sometimes reported out without reports. Instead of recorded votes, in which each Member is recorded as voting for or against the bill, voice votes can be taken, in which no individual Member’s vote can be identified. Bills can be approved by unanimous consent even though they may contain thousands of separate provisions, thus making it impossible to say for sure if a Member really supported a particular provision. Senate bills can be reported out before House bills. An appropriation bill can be passed before an authorization bill. Sometimes, after the September 30 fiscal year deadline has passed and work has not been completed on the regular appropriations bills, the Congress passes a continuing resolution (CR) instead of some or all of the 13 separate bills which fund the operations of the government. The CR can be temporary or permanent. Each year is unique, and it is rare that the “usual” pattern is followed. There are several types of votes: :voice votes, teller votes, division votes, unanimous consent votes, but only when there is a recorded vote will there be a vote number and vote tally in the Congressional Record. The section below is based on “Methods of Voting in the House and Senate: Putting Member’s Positions on the Record,” from Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to Congress, 4th ed., 1991, p. 43031. Methods of Voting ! Division vote—those in favor or opposed stand, and the chair takes a head count: only vote totals are announced and there is no record of how individual Members voted. ! Recorded vote—Members vote electronically, each recorded vote is given a sequential number and vote totals plus how each Member voted are recorded in the Congressional Record. ! Teller vote—an older method in which Members were counted as they passed between chair appointed tellers for the “ayes” and “noes”; only vote totals announced and no record of how individual Members voted. ! Unanimous consent vote—usually reserved for non-controversial legislation. ! Voice vote—the presiding officer calls for the “ayes” and then the “noes,” Members shout in chorus on one side or the other, and the chair decides the result. CRS-3 Table 1. Authorization Bills In Tables 1 and 2 the following abbreviations and symbols will be used: H indicates that the Senate passed a bill with a House resolution number, S indicates that the House passed a bill with a Senate resolution number. Dashes (–-) mean no original Senate bill, House bill number used. VV = voice vote, UC = unanimous consent vote, DV = a division vote. Authorization—House Authorization—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 91-290 7/3/69 9/18/69 # 95 y81-n5 91-607 11/6/69 # 141 y58-n9 91-121 11/19/69 –- 91-1016 7/14/70 9/1/70 # 282 y84-n5 91-1473 10/1/70 VV 91-441 10/7/70 92-618 11/10/71 VV –- 92-359 9/7/71 10/6/71 # 257 y82-n4 92-618 11/11/71 # 309 y65-n19 92-156 11/17/71 92-1388 9/13/72 # 361 y336-n43 –- 92-9622 6/29/72 S 8/2/72 # 341 y92-n5 92-1388 9/15/72 # 433 y73-n5 92-436 9/26/72 Report # Date Reported Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 14000 91-522 9/26/69 S1 10/3/69 # 200 y311-n44 91-607 11/5/69 VV 2546 1971 17123 91-1022 4/24/70 5/6/70 # 104 y326-n69 91-1473 # 320 9/29/70 y341-n11 1972 8687 92-232 5/26/71 6/17/71 # 146 y332-n58 1973 15495 92-1149 6/19/72 6/27/72 # 235 y334-n59 FY H.R. 1970 Laws S. Report # Date Reported Public Law Signed CRS-4 Authorization—House Report # Date Reported Authorization—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays S. Report # Date Reported Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays Public Law Signed FY H.R. 1974 9286 93-383 7/18/73 7/31/73 # 411 y367-n37 93-588 10/31/73 VV –- 93-385 9/6/73 10/1/73 # 448 y91-n7 93-588 11/5/73 # 476 y69-n12 93-155 11/16/3 1975 14592 93-1035 5/10/74 5/22/74 # 242 y358-n37 93-1212 7/29/74 # 412 y305-n38 3000 93-884 5/29/74 H3 6/11/74 # 248 y84-n6 93-1212 7/30/74 # 333 y88-n8 93-365 8/5/74 1976 6674 94-199 5/10/75 5/20/75 # 235 y332-n64 94-413 7/30/75 # 454 y348- n60 920 94-146 5/19/75 H4 6/6/75 # 214 y77-n6 94-413 8/1/75 # 374 y42 n-48 94-488 9/24/75 VV 1977 12438 94-967 3/26/76 4/9/76 # 187 y298-n52 94-1305 6/30/76 # 493 y339-n66 1978 5970 95-194 4/7/77 4/25/77 # 151 y347-n43 95-446 7/13/77 # 409 y350-n40 94-488 9/26/75 # 424 y63-n7 –– –– 94-106 10/7/75 94-878 5/14/76 5/26/76 # 200 y76-n2 94-1305 7/1/76 # 375 y78-n12 94-361 7/14/76 95-282 6/21/77 5/17/77 # 144 y90-n3 95-446 7/14/77 VV 95-79 7/30/77 CRS-5 Authorization—House Report # Date Reported Authorization—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 95-1402 8/4/78 VV FY H.R. 1979 10929 95-1118 5/6/78 5/24/78 # 372 y319-n67 14042 95-1573 9/15/78 S6 10/4/78 # 872 y367-n22 1980 4040 96-166 5/15/79 S8 9/14/79 # 472 y282-n46 96-546 10/26/79 # 610 y300-n26 1981 6974 96-916 4/30/80 5/21/80 # 250 y338-n62 96-1222 8/26/80 # 489 y360-n49 1982 3519 97-71, pt. 19 5/19/81 1983 6030 97-482 4/13/82 7 S. Report # Date Reported Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 95-1402 8/4/78 VV Public Law Signed 2571 95-826 5/15/78 H5 7/11/78 # 203 y87-n2 3486 95-1197 9/15/78 S 9/26/78 # 406 y89-n3 428 96-197 5/31/79 S 6/13/79 # 127 y89-n7 96-546 10/24/79 VV 96-107 11/9/79 96-826 6/20/80 7/2/80 # 295 y84-n3 96-1222 8/26/80 # 384 y78-n2 96-342 9/8/80 –– 7 VETO 8/17/78 95-485 10/20/78 97-311 11/17/81 # 309 y335-n61 815 S107/16/81 # 140 y354-n63 97-58 5/6/81 5/14/81 # 119 y92-n1 97-311 11/5/81 VV 97-86 12/1/81 97-749 8/18/82 # 297 y251-n148 2248 S117/29/82 # 232 y290-n73 97-330 4/13/82 5/13/82 # 120 y84-n8 97-749 8/17/82 # 331 y77-n21 97-252 9/8/82 CRS-6 Authorization—House Report # Date Reported Authorization—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays S. Report # Date Reported Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays Public Law Signed FY H.R. 1984 2969 98-107 5/11/83 S12 7/29/83 # 275 y305-n114 98-352 9/15/83 # 339 y266-n152 675 98-174 7/5/83 7/26/83 # 221 y83-n15 98-352 9/13/83 # 244 y83-n8 98-94 9/24/83 1985 5167 98-691 4/19/84 5/31/84 # 204 y298-n98) 98-1080 9/26/84 VV 2723 98-500 5/31/84 H13 6/20/84 # 152 y82-n6 98-1080 9/27/84 VV 98-525 10/19/84 1986 1872 99-81 5/10/85 S14 6/27/85 VV 99-235 10/29/85 VV 1160 5/16/85 No Rpt. 6/5/85 # 106 y92-n3 99-235 7/30/85 # 167 y94-n5 99-145 11/8/85 1987 4428 99-718 7/25/86 S15 9/18/86 # 358 y255-n152 99-1001 10/15/86 # 467 y283-n128 2638 99-331 S 7/8/86 8/9/86 #207 y86-n3 98-1001 10/15/86 VV 99-661 11/14/86 1988 1748 100-58 4/15/87 5/20/87 # 141 y239-n177 100-466 11/18/87 # 440 y264-n158 1174 100-57 S 5/8/87 S16 10/2/87 # 300 y56-n42 100-466 11/19/87 # 384 y86-n9 100-180 12/4/87 1989 4264 100-563 4/5/88 5/11/88 # 126 y252-n172 100-753 7/14/88 # 233 y229-n83 2355 100-326 5/4/88 H17 5/27/88 VV 100-753 7/14/88 # 252 y64-n30 VETO 8/3/88 CRS-7 Authorization—House FY H.R. 448118 Authorization—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 100-735 6/28/88 7/12/88 VV 100-989 9/28/88 # 359 y369-n48 Report # Date Reported 19 Laws Report # Date Reported Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 2749 8/11/88 VV H 9/15/88 VV 100-989 9/28/88 # 340 y91-n4 100-456 9/29/88 S. Public Law Signed 1990 2461 101-121 7/1/89 7/27/89 # 185 y261-n162 101-331 11/9/89 # 343 y236-n172 1352 101-81 7/19/89 H20 8/2/89 # 161 y95-n4 101-331 11/15/89 # 299 y91-n8 101-189 11/29/89 1991 4739 101-665 8/3/90 9/19/90 # 352 y256-n155 101-923 10/24/90 # 517 y271-n156 2884 101-384 7/20/90 H21 8/4/90 # 227 y79-n16 101-923 10/26/90 # 320 y80-n17 101-510 11/5/90 1992 2100 102-60 5/13/91 5/22/91 # 110 y268-n161 102-311 11/18/91 # 400 y329-n82 1507 102-113 H 7/19/91 H22 8/2/91 VV 102-311 11/22/91 # 265 y79-n15 102-190 12/5/91 1993 5006 102-527 5/19/92 6/5/92 # 172 y198-n168 102-966 10/3/92 # 461 y304-n100 3114 102-352 7/31/92 H23 9/19/92 VV 102-966 10/5/92 VV 102-484 10/23/92 1994 2401 103-200 7/30/93 9/29/93 # 474 y268-n162 103-357 11/15/93 # 565 y273-n135 1298 103-112 7/27/93 H249/4/93 # 265 y92-n7 103-357 11/17/93 # 380 y77-n22 103-160 11/30/93 CRS-8 Authorization—House FY H.R. 1995 4301 1996 1997 1998 1530 3230 1119 Authorization—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 103-499 5/10/94 6/9/94 # 226 y260-n158 103-701 S 8/17/94 # 404 y280-n137 2182 103-282 6/14/94 104-131 6/1/95 6/15/95 # 385 y300n126 104-406 12/15/95 # 865 y267-n149 1026 104-112 7/12/95 S 1/5/96 VV 104-450 1/24/96 # 16 y287-n129 1124 27 8/7/95 No Rpt. 104-261 5/13/96 Report # Date Reported S. 25 104-563 5/7/96 5/15/96 # 174 y272-n153 104-724 8/1/96 # 397 y285-n132 1745 105-132 6/16/97 6/25/97 # 236 y304n120 105-340 10/28/97 # 534 y268n123 936 Report # Date Reported No Report 6/18/97 Passed Vote # yeas-nays 26 7/1/94 VV Laws Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays Public Law Signed 103-701 9/13/94 # 297 y80-n18 103-337 10/5/94 H 9/6/95 # 399 y64-n34 104-406 12/19/95 # 608 y51-n43 VETO 12/28/95 9/6/95 VV28 104-450 1/26/96 #5 y56-n34 104-106 2/10/96 H 7/10/96 # 187 y68-n31 104-724 9/10/96 # 279 y73-n26 104-201 9/23/96 H30 7/11/97 # 173 y94-n4 105-340 11/6/97 # 296 y90-n 10 105-85 11/18/97 29 CRS-9 Authorization—House 1 Report # Date Reported Authorization—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays S. Report # Date Reported Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays H.R. 1999 3616 105-532 5/12/98 5/21/98 # 183 y357-n60 105-736 9/24/98 # 458 y373-n50 2057 No Report 5/11/98 H31 6/25/98 # 181 y88-n4 105-736 10/1/98 # 293 y96-n2 105-261 10/17/98 2000 1401 106-162 5/24/99 S32 6/14/99 UC 106-301 9/15/99 # 424 y375-n45 1059 106-50 5/17/99 5/27/99 # 154 y92-n3 106-301 9/22/99 # 284 y93-n5 106-65 10/5/99 2001 4205 106-616 5/12/00 5/18/00 # 208 y353-n63 106-945 10/11/00 # 522 y382-n31 2549 106-292 5/12/00 H337/13/0 0 # 179 y97-n3 106-945 10/12/00 # 275 y90-n3 106-398 10/30/00 After passing H.R. 14000 by recorded vote # 200, the House passed S. 2546 by voice vote and laid H.R. 14000 on the table. Senate reported out a substitute bill for H.R. 15495 as passed the House. 3 Senate substituted text of S. 3000, then passed H.R. 14592 in lieu. 4 Senate passed H.R. 6674 in lieu of S. 920. 5 Senate passed H.R. 10929 in lieu of S. 2571. 6 House passed S. 3486 amended in lieu of H.R. 14042. 7 Senate agreed to House amendments. No conference was held. 8 House passed H.R. 4040, laid it on the table by voice vote, then passed S. 428 in lieu by voice vote. 9 H.R. 3519 had a three-part report; this date is for the earliest report. 10 House passed S. 815 in lieu of H.R. 3519. 2 Public Law Signed FY CRS-10 11 House laid H.R. 6030 on the table and passed S. 2248 in lieu. House inserted text of H.R. 2969 into S. 675, then passed it by voice vote. 13 Senate substituted text of S. 2723, then passed H.R. 5167. 14 House passed S. 1160, amended, in lieu of H.R. 1872. 15 House inserted text of H.R. 4428, then passed S. 2638. 16 Senate inserted text of S. 1174, then passed H.R. 1748. 17 Senate folded text of S. 2355 into H.R. 4264, then passed it. 18 After the initial bill was vetoed, an amended version was added to an existing bill on military base closures–H.R. 4481. 19 H.R. 4481 had a four-part report; the date is that of the earliest report. 20 Senate inserted text of S. 1352, then passed H.R. 2461. 21 Senate inserted text of S. 2884, then passed H.R. 4739. 22 Senate inserted text of S. 1507, then passed H.R. 2100. 23 Senate inserted text of S. 3114, then passed H.R. 5006. 24 Senate inserted text of S. 1298, then passed H.R. 2401. 25 House passed S. 2182 by voice vote on 7/25/94 after substituting the text of H.R. 4301 as passed the House. 26 Senate inserted text of S. 2182, then passed H.R. 4301. 27 After veto of H.R. 1530 and failure to override, an amended conference report on S. 1124 was passed. The President signed P.L. 104-106 on 2/10/96. 28 Senate struck all but the enacting clause and substituted division A of S. 1026. 29 Senate substituted text of S. 1745, then passed H.R. 3230. 30 Senate passed S. 936, inserted text of S. 936 into H.R. 1119, then passed H. R. 1119 by voice vote. 31 Senate passed S. 2057 by roll call vote # 181 on 6/25/98, then struck all but the enacting clause of H.R. 3616, inserted the text of S. 2057, then passed H.R. 3616 on 6/25/98 by unanimous consent. 32 House passed H.R. 1401 on 6/10/99 by roll call vote # 191, 365-58, then the bill was laid on the table. Subsequently, on 6/14/00 the House struck all but the enacting clause of S. 1059, substituted the text of H.R. 1401, and passed S.1059 without objection. 33 Senate struck all after the Enacting Clause and substituted the language of S.2549 amended, then passed H. R. 4205 in lieu of S. 2549 with an amendment. H.R. 4205 enacted into law the text of H.R. 5408 as introduced on 10/6/00. 12 CRS-11 Table 2. Appropriation Bills Appropriation—House FY H.R. 1970 15090 Appropriation—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 91-698 12/3/69 12/8/69 # 306 y330-n33 91-766 12/18/69 VV –- Report # Date Reported S. Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 91-607 12/12/69 12/15/69 # 241 y85-n4 91-766 12/18/69 VV 91-171 12/29/69 Report # Date Reported Public Law Signed 1971 19590 91-1570 10/6/70 10/8/70 # 338 y274-n31 91-179934 12/29/70 # 452 y234-n18 –- 91-1392 12/3/70 12/8/70 # 417 y89-n0 91-1799 12/29/70 # 457 y70-n2 91-668 1/11/71 1972 11731 92-666 11/11/71 11/17/71 # 402 y343-n51 92-754 12/15/71 # 466 y293-n39 –- 92-498 11/18/71 11/23/71 # 396 y80-n5 92-754 12/15/71 VV 92-204 12/18/71 1973 16593 92-1389 9/11/72 9/14/72 # 368 y322-n41 92-1566 10/12/72 # 434 y316-n42 –- 92-1243 9/29/72 10/2/72 # 496 y70-n5 92-1566 10/13/72 VV 92-570 10/26/72 1974 11575 93-662 11/26/73 11/30/73 # 610 y336-n23 93-741 12/20/73 # 712 y336-n32 –- 93-617 12/12/73 12/13/73 # 581 y89-n2 93-741 12/20/73 VV 93-238 ½/74 CRS-12 Appropriation—House Report # Date Reported Appropriation—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays FY H.R. 1975 16243 93-1255 8/1/74 8/6/74 # 455 y350-n43 93-1363 7/23/74 # 534 y293-n59 1976 9861 94-517 9/25/75 10/2/75 # 575 y353-n61 94-710 12/12/75 # 777 y314-n57 S. –- –- Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 93-1104 8/16/74 8/21/74 # 376 y86-n5 93-1363 9/24/74 VV 94-446 11/6/75 11/18/75 # 505 y87-n7 94-710 12/17/75 # 602 y87-n9 Report # Date Reported Public Law Signed 93-437 10/8/74 35 1/27/76 # 21 y323-n99 1977 14262 94-1231 6/8/76 6/17/76 # 401 y331-n53 94-1475 9/9/76 # 702 y323-n45 1978 7933 95-451 6/21/77 6/30/77 # 402 y333-n54 95-565 9/8/77 # 516 y361-n36 1979 13635 95-1398 7/27/78 8/9/78 # 665 y339-n60 95-1764 10/12/78 VV 94-212 2/9/76 –- –- –- 94-1046 7/22/76 8/9/76 # 511 y82-n6 94-1475 9/13/76 VV 94-419 9/22/76 95-325 7/1/77 7/19/77 # 308 y91-n2 95-565 9/9/77 VV 95-111 9/21/77 95-1264 10/2/78 10/5/78 # 445 y86-n3 95-1764 10/12/78 # 487 y77-n3 95-457 10/13/78 CRS-13 Appropriation—House Report # Date Reported Appropriation—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays FY H.R. 1980 5359 96-450 9/20/79 9/28/79 # 522 y305-n49 96-696 12/12/79 VV 1981 8105 96-1317 9/11/80 9/16/80 # 549 y351-n42 96-1528 12/4/80 # 673 y321-n36 1982 4995 97-333 11/16/81 11/18/81 # 320 y335-n61 97-410 12/15/81 # 363 y334-n84 1983 7355 97-943 12/2/82 12/8/82 # 425 y346-n68 H.J.Re s. 63136 97-959 12/10/82 12/14/82 # 451 y204-n200 97-980 12/20/82 y232-n54 DV 4185 98-427 10/20/83 11/2/83 # 443 y328-n97 98-567 11/18/83 # 531 y311-n99 1984 Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 96-393 11/1/79 11/9/79 # 401 y73-n3 96-696 12/13/79 VV 96-154 12/21/79 96-1020 11/19/80 11/21/80 # 483 y73-n1 96-1528 12/5/80 # 510 y73-n1 96-527 12/15/80 1857 97-273 11/17/81 H 12/4/81 # 456 y84-n5 97-410 12/15/81 # 489 y93-n4 97-114 12/29/81 2951 97-580 9/23/82 12/15/82 No Report 12/19/82 # 455 y63-n31 97-980 12/20/82 # 459 y55-n41 97-377 12/21/82 98-292 11/1/83 H37 11/8/83 # 344 y86-n6 98-567 11/18/83 # 380 y75-n6 98-212 12/8/83 S. –- –- 2039 Report # Date Reported Public Law Signed CRS-14 Appropriation—House Passed Vote # yeas-nays FY H.R. Report # Date Reported 1985 6329 98-1086 9/26/84 H.J.Re s. 64838 98-1030 9/17/84 9/25/8439 # 421 y316-n91 3629 99-332 10/24/8 10/30/85 # 379 y359-n67 H.J.Re s 46536 99-403 11/21/85 12/4/85 # 427 y212-n208 1986 1987 5438 99-793 8/14/86 Appropriation—Senate Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays S. Report # Date Reported 3026 96-636 9/26/84 98-1159 9/27/84 98-1159 10/10/84 DV y252-n60 –- 99-450 12/19/85 # 476 y261-n137 Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 10/4/84 VV 98-1159 10/11/84 # 287 y78-n11 98-473 10/12/84 12/10/85 VV 99-450 12/19/95 VV 99-190 12/19/85 Public Law Signed 99-176 11/6/85 12/5/85 No Report 2827 Laws 99-446 9/17/86 CRS-15 Appropriation—House FY H.R. Report # Date Reported H.J.Re s. 73836 1988 Appropriation—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 9/25/86 # 417 y201-n200 99-1005 10/15/86 # 472 y235-n172 3576 100-410 10/28/87 H.J.Re s 39536 100-415 10/29/87 12/3/87 # 458 y248-n170 104-498 12/22/87 # 510 y209-n208 1989 4781 100-681 6/10/88 6/21/88 # 193 y360-n53 100-1002 9/30/88 # 372 y327-n77 1990 3072 101-208 8/1/89 8/4/89 # 218 y312-n105 101-345 11/15/89 VV S. Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 10/3/86 # 330 y82-n13 99-1005 10/17/86 VV 99-59140 10/30/86 100-238 12/8/87 12/11/87 # 414 y72-n21 100-498 12/22/87 # 420 y59-n30 100-202 12/22/87 100-402 H 6/24/88 H 8/11/88 # 308 y90-n4 100-1002 9/30/88 VV 100-463 10/1/88 101-132 9/14/89 9/29/89 # 217 y96-n2 101-345 11/17/89 VV 101-165 11/21/89 Report # Date Reported 99-500 9/29/86 1923 –- –- Laws Public Law Signed 100-235 12/4/87 CRS-16 Appropriation—House Report # Date Reported Appropriation—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays FY H.R. 1991 5803 101-822 10/10/90 10/12/90 # 455 y322-n97 101-938 10/25/90 VV 1992 2521 102-95 6/4/91 6/7/91 # 145 y273-n105 102-328 11/20/91 VV 1993 5504 102-627 6/29/92 7/2/92 # 266 y328-n94 102-1015 10/5/92 VV 1994 3116 103-254 9/22/93 9/30/93 # 480 y325-n102 103-339 11/10/93 VV 1995 4650 103-562 6/27/94 6/29/94 # 313 y330-n91 103-747 9/29/94 # 446 y327-n86 S. 3189 –- –- –- –- Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 101-521 10/11/90 H4110/16/ 90 # 273 y79-n16 101-938 10/26/90 # 319 y80-n17 101-511 11/5/90 102-154 9/20/91 9/26/91 VV 102-328 11/23/91 # 272 y66-n29 102-172 11/26/91 102-408 9/17/92 9/23/92 # 229 y86-n10 102-1015 10/5/92 VV 102-396 10/6/92 103-153 10/4/93 10/21/93 VV 103-339 11/10/93 # 368 y88-n9 103-139 11/11/93 103-321 7/29/94 8/11/94 # 282 y86-n14 103-747 9/29/94 VV 103-335 9/30/94 Report # Date Reported Public Law Signed CRS-17 Appropriation—House FY H.R. 1996 2126 Report # Date Reported 140-208 7/27/95 Appropriation—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 9/7/95 # 646 y294-n125 104-261 9/29/95 # 700 y151-n267 S. 1087 Report # Date Reported 104-124 7/28/95 Passed Vote # yeas-nays Laws Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays Public Law Signed H42 9/5/95 # 397 y62-n35 104-344 11/16/95 # 806 y270-n158 104-344 11/16/95 # 579 y59-n39 104-6143 12/1/95 1997 3610 104-617 6/11/96 6/13/96 # 247 y278-n126 104-863 9/28/96 # 455 y370-n37 1894 104-286 6/20/96 H44 7/18/96 # 200 y72-n27 104-863 9/30/96 VV 104-208 9/30/96 1998 2266 105-206 7/25/97 7/29/97 # 338 y322n105 105-265 9/25/97 # 442 y356-n65 1005 105-45 7/10/97 H45 7/15/97 # 176 y94-n4 105-265 9/25/97 # 258 y93-n 5 105-5646 10/8/97 1999 4103 105-591 6/22/98 6/24/98 # 266 y358-n61 105-746 9/28/98 # 471 y369-n43 2132 105-200 6/4/98 H47 7/30/98 # 252 y97-n2 105-746 9/29/98 # 291 y94-n2 105-262 10/17/98 2000 2561 106-244 7/20/99 7/22/99 # 334 y379-n45 106-371 10/13/99 # 494 y372-n55 1122 106-53 5/25/99 H48 7/28/99 UC 106-371 10/14/99 # 326 y87-n11 106-79 10/25/99 CRS-18 Appropriation—House FY H.R. 2001 4576 34 Report # Date Reported 106-644 6/1/00 Appropriation—Senate Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays 6/7/00 # 241 y367-n58 106-754 7/19/00 # 413 y367-n58 S. 2593 Report # Date Reported 106-298 5/18/00 Laws Passed Vote # yeas-nays Conf. Rept. # Passed Vote # yeas-nays H496/13/0 0 # 127 y95-n3 106-754 7/27/00 # 230 y91-n9 Public Law Signed 106-259 8/9/00 Vote on second conference report. First conference report (91-1759) passed by the House 328-30 but tabled in the Senate. House agreed to Tunney amendment banning any funding for activities in Angola, thus clearing this bill to be sent to the President. 36 A continuing resolution, which was passed instead of the normal DOD appropriations bill. 37 Senate incorporated text of S. 2039 into H.R. 4185, then passed it. 38 Both House and Senate bills were incorporated into this continuing resolution, which was passed instead of the normal DOD appropriations bill. 39 House inserted texts of H.R. 3678, H. R. 5119, and H. R. 5913. 40 Updated version of P.L. 99-500. 41 Senate passed S. 3189 on 10/15/90, then vitiated this action on 10/16/90, and passed H.R. 5803 in lieu. 42 Senate passed S. 1087, amended by recorded vote # 397 on 9/5/95, then passed H.R. 2126 in lieu on 9/8/95 by voice vote. 43 The President allowed H.R. 2126 to become law without his signature. 44 Senate substituted the text of S. 1894, then passed H.R. 3610. 45 Senate passed S. 1005, amended by vote # 176 on 7/15/97, then inserted text of S. 1005 into H.R. 2266, and passed it in lieu on 7/29/97 by voice vote. 46 President Clinton used his line item veto power to veto several items in this law. 47 Senate passed H.R. 4103 in lieu of S. 2132. 48 On 7/28/99 the Senate vitiated previous passage of its own defense appropriations bill (S. 1122, 6/8/99, vote # 158, 93-4), and passed H.R. 2561 after striking all but the enacting clause and inserting the text of S. 1122. 49 On 6/18/00 the Senate struck all but the enacting clause of H.R. 4576 and substituted the language of S. 2593, and on 6/13/00 the Senate passed H.R. 4576 amended. 35 CRS-19 Definitions This section taken from CRS Report 93-317, A Defense Budget Primer, 1993. ! Appropriation—One form of budget authority provided by Congress permitting Federal agencies to incur obligations and to make payments out of the Treasury for specific purposes. Appropriated funds must be spent for purposes specifically designated by Congress but are not necessarily spent in the year in which they are provided. ! Authorization—Establishes or maintains a Government program or agency by defining its scope. May set a specific limit on how much Congress can appropriate for that program. Authorizing legislation is normally a prerequisite for appropriation. An authorization does not make money available. ! Continuing resolution—Legislation enacted by Congress to provide budget authority for Federal agencies and programs in lieu of regular appropriations acts. CRs may be temporary (providing only stop-gap funding until passage of regular appropriations acts) or full-year (substituting for one or more regular appropriations acts). ! Supplemental Appropriation—An act appropriating funds in addition to what is provided in a regular annual appropriation act. Military and DOD civilian pay raises are often funded in supplemental appropriation acts. CRS-20 Table 3. Real Growth/Decline in National Defense Funding, FY1940-FY2005 (current and constant FY2001 dollars in billions) Fiscal Year 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Budget Authority Outlays Constant Real Current FY2001 Growth/ Dollars Dollars Decline Current Dollars 1.7 6.4 25.7 66.7 79.1 Constant FY2001 Dollars 24.9 92.1 334.9 801.5 979.5 Real Growth/ Decline +269.8% +263.6% +139.3% +22.2% 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 39.2 44.0 9.0 9.5 10.9 574.8 523.5 108.4 102.0 119.9 -8.9% -79.3% -5.8% +17.5% 83.0 42.7 12.8 9.1 13.2 1061.6 545.1 149.3 102.3 141.6 +8.4% -48.7% -72.6% -31.5% +38.4% 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 16.5 57.8 67.5 56.9 38.7 164.9 +37.5% 455.6 +176.4% 550.5 +20.8% 474.3 -13.8% 340.5 -28.2% 13.7 23.6 46.1 52.8 49.3 146.8 225.6 402.2 446.1 424.3 +3.7% +53.7% +78.3% +10.9% -4.9% 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 32.9 35.0 39.4 40.1 45.1 287.6 287.7 309.4 299.0 315.7 -15.5% +0.0% +7.5% -3.3% +5.6% 42.7 42.5 45.4 46.8 49.0 362.4 342.4 347.3 339.5 339.4 -14.6% -5.5% +1.4% -2.3% -0.0% 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 44.3 45.1 50.2 52.1 51.6 304.7 308.1 337.3 342.6 326.8 -3.5% +1.1% +9.5% +1.6% -4.6% 48.1 49.6 52.3 53.4 54.8 331.7 331.3 350.4 354.6 351.0 -2.3% -0.1% +5.7% +1.2% -1.0% 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 50.6 64.4 73.1 77.2 78.5 312.5 364.9 398.2 405.1 395.5 -4.4% +16.8% +9.1% +1.8% -2.4% 50.6 58.1 71.4 81.9 82.5 320.6 343.4 397.4 433.7 422.6 -8.7% +7.1% +15.7% +9.1% -2.6% 1970 1971 1972 75.3 72.7 76.4 357.3 325.3 313.1 -9.7% -8.9% -3.7% 81.7 78.9 79.2 391.6 356.9 331.3 -7.3% -8.9% -7.2% CRS-21 Budget Authority Fiscal Year 1973 1974 Current Dollars 79.1 81.5 Constant Real FY2001 Growth/ Dollars Decline 299.2 -4.5% 283.6 -5.2% Outlays Current Dollars 76.7 79.3 Constant Real FY2001 Growth/ Dollars Decline 301.9 -8.9% 289.1 -4.3% 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 86.2 97.3 110.2 117.2 126.5 274.5 287.7 299.3 295.1 294.0 -3.2% +4.8% +4.0% -1.4% -0.4% 86.5 89.6 97.2 104.5 116.3 282.9 273.7 276.3 276.5 285.5 -2.1% -3.2% +0.9% +0.1% +3.3% 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 143.9 180.0 216.5 245.0 265.2 299.1 334.8 371.9 402.8 421.6 +1.7% +11.9% +11.1% +8.3% +4.7% 134.0 157.5 185.3 209.9 227.4 293.0 306.7 328.8 354.7 369.3 +2.6% +4.7% +7.2% +7.9% +4.1% 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 294.7 289.1 287.4 292.0 299.6 448.4 430.2 416.1 407.7 402.6 +6.3% -4.0% -3.3% -2.0% -1.3% 252.7 273.4 282.0 290.4 303.6 391.6 412.1 413.4 412.0 413.3 +6.0% +5.3% +0.3% -0.3% +0.3% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 301.2 296.2 287.7 281.1 263.3 393.3 370.5 352.5 334.7 306.7 -2.3% -5.8% -4.9% -5.0% -8.4% 297.9 296.7 286.1 283.9 278.9 393.9 374.9 351.3 337.8 324.0 -4.7% -4.8% -6.3% -3.8% -4.1% 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 266.3 266.0 270.3 271.3 292.1 304.1 297.5 295.9 290.8 307.0 -0.8% -2.2% -0.5% -1.7% +5.6% 271.0 265.2 270.4 268.4 274.9 309.3 296.4 294.9 286.9 288.7 -4.5% -4.2% -0.5% -2.7% +0.6% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 293.3 305.4 309.2 315.6 323.4 301.6 305.4 302.7 302.3 302.4 -1.8% +1.3% -0.9% -0.1% +0.0% 290.6 291.2 298.4 307.4 316.5 298.8 291.2 292.2 295.0 296.6 +3.5% -2.6% +0.4% +0.9% +0.5% 2005 331.7 302.8 +0.1% 330.7 302.7 0.02 Table by Stephen Daggett, Foreign Affairs, National Defense, and Trade Division, CRS. CRS-22 Sources: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Historical Tables: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1999, February 1998; deflators and figures on Desert Shield/Desert Storm costs and receipts from Under Secretary of Defense Comptroller; CRS calculations. Notes: Figures for FY1990 and beyond exclude costs and receipts of Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Figures for FY1998-2003 reflect Administration projections. No data are available for budget authority prior to FY1945. Figures for budget authority reflect one unavoidable statistical discontinuity. Figures prior to FY1976 are from DOD data that have not been revised to reflect accrual accounting for military retirement in years prior to its adoption in FY1985. Figures from FY1976 on have been revised by the Office of Management and Budget to reflect accrual accounting. The difference, however, is relatively small and does not significantly affect the figures as an indication of trends in national defense funding. CRS-23 Table 4. Congressional Action on Annual Department of Defense Appropriations Requests: FY1950-2001 (new budget authority in millions of current year dollars) Fiscal Year Change Enacted from Request Request House Senate 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 13,321 13,038 55,944 49,036 33,639 13,376 12,849 54,424 43,889 34,353 13,268 12,955 58,081 44,094 34,431 12,766 12,955 55,226 44,302 34,291 -555 -83 -718 -4,734 +652 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 29,842 32,205 34,148 36,193 38,787 28,650 31,460 33,635 33,563 38,410 29,138 31,855 34,784 34,392 40,043 28,766 31,855 34,657 33,760 39,603 -1,076 -350 +509 -2,433 +816 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 39,248 49,355 42,942 47,907 49,104 38,848 39,338 42,711 47,839 47,082 39,594 40,515 46,848 48,429 47,340 39,228 39,997 46,663 48,136 47,220 -20 -9,358 +3,720 +229 -1,884 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 47,471 46,852 57,664 71,584 77,074 46,759 45,067 58,616 70,295 72,240 46,774 46,756 58,190 70,132 71,887 46,752 46,766 58,067 69,937 71,870 -719 -86 +403 -1,647 -5,204 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 75,278 68,746 73,544 79,600 77,240 69,960 66,807 71,048 74,576 74,091 60,323 66,417 70,349 74,572 73,254 69,641 66,596 70,518 74,373 73,704 -5,638 -2,150 -3,025 -5,227 -3,536 1975 1976 TQ 1977 1978 1979 87,057 97,858 23,118 107,964 113,877 119,300 82,984 90,219 21,675 105,397 110,082 119,019 81,584 90,722 21,850 104,014 109,805 116,423 82,096 90,467 21,861 104,344 111,184 117,256 -4,961 -7,391 -1,257 -3,621 -2,693 -2,045 CRS-24 Fiscal Year Change Enacted from Request Request House Senate 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 132,321 154,496 200,878 249,550 260,840 129,524 157,211 197,443 230,216 246,505 131,661 160,848 208,676 233,389 252,101 130,981 159,739 199,691 231,496 248,852 -1,339 +5,242 -1,187 -18,054 -11,988 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 292,101 303,830 298,883 291,216 283,159 268,172 268,727 264,957 268,131 282,603 277,989 282,584 276,883 277,886 282,572 274,278 281,038 273,801 278,825 282,412 -17,823 -22,792 -25,082 -12,391 -747 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 288,237 287,283 270,936 261,134 241,082 286,476 267,824 270,566 251,867 239,602 288,217 268,378 270,258 250,686 239,178 286,025 268,188 269,911 253,789 240,570 -2,211 -19,095 -1,025 -7,345 -512 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 244,450 236,344 234,678 243,924 250,999 243,573 243,998 245,217 248,335 250,727 243,628 242,684 244,897 247,185 250,518 243,628 243,251 243,947 247,709 250,511 -822 +6,907 +9,268 +3,785 -488 2000 2001 263,266 284,501 267,900 288,513 263,932 287,631 267,795 287,806 +4,529 +3,305 Table by Stephen Daggett, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, CRS. Sources: For FY1950-74, Department of Defense FAD Table 809, issued Oct. 21, 1974; FY1975-82 and FY1989-99, annual Appropriations Committee conference reports; FY1983-88, Department of Defense Comptroller, annual reports on congressional action on appropriations requests (FAD-28 tables); FY2000-01, House Appropriations Committee. Notes: Amounts are for the basic Department of Defense appropriations bill only and exclude military construction (including family housing), military assistance program, and supplemental appropriations. Before the mid-1980s, supplemental appropriations were provided annually for pay raises and sometimes included substantial amounts for contingencies. In the FY1951 budget, Congress provided $32.8 billion in supplemental appropriations mainly for Korean war costs. Congress also provided supplemental appropriations of $12.0 billion in FY1966 and $12.2 billion in FY1967 mainly for Vietnam war costs. Supplemental amounts in other years ranged from zero in FY1953-55 and FY1957 to $4.8 billion in FY1974. CRS-25 Table 5. Defense Appropriations Since the 104th Congress (budget authority in millions of dollars) Request FY1995 H.R. 889, P.L. 104-6, 4/10/95 Supplemental Appropriations Offsetting Rescissions Total, Supplemental Appropriations FY1996 Regular Appropriations DOD Appropriations MilCon Appropriations Energy Appropriations Other Appropriations Offsetting Receipts Total, Regular Appropriations H.R. 3019, P.L. 104-134, 4/26/96 Supplemental Appropriations Offsetting Rescissions Total, Supplemental Appropriations FY1997 Regular Appropriations DOD Appropriations MilCon Appropriations Energy Appropriations Other Appropriations Offsetting Receipts Total, Regular Appropriations H.R. 1871, P.L. 105-18, 6/12/97 Supplemental Appropriations Offsetting Rescissionsa Total, Supplemental Appropriations FY1998 Regular Appropriations DOD Appropriations MilCon Appropriations Energy Appropriations Other Appropriations Offsetting Receipts Total, Regular Appropriations H.R. 3579, P.L. 105-174, 5/1/98 Supplemental Appropriations Offsetting Rescissions Total, Supplemental Appropriations Enacted Difference 2,207 -703 1,504 2,710 -2,332 349 +503 -1,629 -1,155 236,344 10,698 11,116 255 -920 257,493 243,251 11,177 10,656 258 -920 264,423 +6,907 +479 -459 +3 0 +6,930 620 -960 -340 962 -1,032 -70 +342 -72 +270 234,678 9,132 11,066 461 -975 254,363 243,947 9,982 11,352 359 -978 264,662 +9,268 +850 +286 -102 -3 +10,300 2,098 -4,872 -2,774 1,929 -1,930 -0 -169 +2,942 +2,774 243,924 8,383 13,615 686 -1,000 265,608 247,709 9,183 11,540 726 -1,169 267,989 +3,785 +800 -2,075 +40 -169 +2,381 2,021 0 2,021 2,860 0 2,860 +839 0 +839 CRS-26 FY1999 Regular Appropriations DOD Appropriations MilCon Appropriations Energy Appropriations Other Appropriations Offsetting Receipts Total, Regular Appropriations Request Enacted Difference 250,999 7,784 12,158 776 -1,271 270,446 250,511 8,450 11,879 817 -1,266 270,390 -488 +666 -279 +41 +5 -55 8,281 +8,281 5,376 10,895 +5,519 263,266 5,438 12,281 865 -1,406 +4,529 +2,936 -248 -16 280,444 267,795 8,374 12,033 849 -1,506 -1,006 286,540 2,288 6,757 +4,469 284,501 287,806 1,779 +3,305 +1,779 8,034 8,834 +800 1,628,963 1,681,495 +52,532 H.R. 4328, P.L. 105-277, 10/20/98 Supplemental Appropriations H.R. 1664/H.R. 1141, P.L. 106-31, 5/18/99 Supplemental Appropriationsb FY2000 Regular Appropriations DOD Appropriationsc MilCon Appropriationsd Energy Appropriations Other Appropriations Offsetting Receipts Omnibus Appropriations 0.38% Cut Total, Regular Appropriations H.R. 4425, P.L. 106-246, 7/13/00 Supplemental Appropriations FY2001 (Enacted through 9/08/00) Regular Appropriations DOD Appropriations FY2000 Supplemental in Regular Bill MilCon Appropriations Energy Appropriations Other Appropriations Total, Regular Appropriations GRAND TOTAL a -1,006 +6,095 Administration rescissions request includes $4.8 billion in authority for the Secretary of Defense to make cuts in previously appropriated funds up to that amount. b Of the enacted amount, $1,838 million was for pay and benefit improvements beginning in FY2000. Senate considered only the conference report. c Total enacted includes $7,200 million in emergency appropriations. d Request also proposed $3,061 million of advance FY2001 appropriations.