Order Code RL30076 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999 Updated August 9, 1999 Stephen W. Stathis Specialist in American National Government Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress ABSTRACT Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. These medals should not be confused with the Medal of Honor, which is presented “in the name of the Congress of the United States,” and is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Regulations for the Medal of Honor are established by the armed services. Congressional Gold Medals, conversely, can only be approved by Congress. Each medal in this series is individually struck to honor a particular individual, institution, or event. Members of Congress and their staff frequently ask questions concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process. This report provides a response to such inquiries and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards intended to assist Members of Congress in their consideration of future proposals to award Congressional Gold Medals. It will be updated annually. Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999 Summary Senators and Representatives are frequently asked to support or sponsor proposals recognizing historic events, and outstanding achievements by individuals or institutions. Among the various forms of recognition that Congress bestows, the Congressional Gold Medal is often considered the most distinguished. Through this venerable tradition, the occasional commissioning of individually struck gold medals in its name, Congress has expressed public gratitude on behalf of the nation for distinguished contributions for more than two centuries. Since 1776, this award, which initially was bestowed on military leaders, has also been given to such diverse individuals as Sir Winston Churchill and Bob Hope, George Washington and Robert Frost, Joe Louis and Mother Teresa of Calcutta. Members of Congress and their staff frequently ask questions concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process for awarding Gold Medals. This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning this process, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards. It is intended to assist Members of Congress and staff in their consideration of future Gold Medal proposals, and will be updated annually. Contents Practices Adopted During the American Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 First Medals Were Struck in Paris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Recipients in the Nineteenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . War of 1812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Congress Broadens the Scope of Its Gold Medal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 4 4 Recipients in the Twentieth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Actors, Authors, Entertainers, and Musicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Aeronautical and Space Pioneers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Antarctic Explorers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Acclaimed Lifesavers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Military Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Notables in Science and Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Awards for Athletic Prowess, Humanitarian Contributions, and Public Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Foreign Recipients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Design and Casting of Gold Medals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Current Legislative Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Appendix: Recipients of Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1998 A Chronological List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Name Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999 George Washington, Bob Hope, Joe Louis, the Wright Brothers, Robert Frost, Francis Albert "Frank" Sinatra, and Mother Teresa of Calcutta share a common bond in American history. These notable personages, together with some 250 other individuals and the American Red Cross, have been accorded the unique distinction of being awarded a Congressional Gold Medal. Through these awards, Congress has expressed public gratitude for distinguished contributions, dramatized the virtues of patriotism, and perpetuated the remembrance of great events. This tradition, of authorizing individually struck gold medals bearing the portraits of those so honored or images of events in which they participated, is rich with history. Although Congress has approved legislation stipulating specific requirements for numerous other awards and decorations,1 there are no permanent statutory provisions specifically relating to the creation of Congressional Gold Medals. When such an award has been deemed appropriate, Congress has, by special action, provided for the creation of a personalized medal to be given in its name, which would in each instance truly record the approbation of a grateful country. Practices Adopted During the American Revolution Congress from the outset was "imbued with the conviction that only the very highest achievements [were] entitled to such a distinction, and that the value of a reward is enhanced by its rarity!"2 Instituting such a tradition was considered "both a legitimate function and powerful instrument of nationality."3 "Few inventions," Colonel David Humphrey wrote in 1787, "could be more happily calculated to diffuse the knowledge and preserve the memory of illustrious characters and splendid events than medals—whether we take into consideration the imperishable nature of the substance whence they are formed, the facility of multiplying copies, or the practice of depositing them in the cabinets of the curious."4 With these words, Humphrey,5 1 See "Decorations, Medals, and Badges," in the general index of the United States Code: 1994 Edition (Washington: GPO, 1995). 2 J.F. Loubat, The Medallic History of the United States of America, 1776-1876, 2 vols. (New York: Printed by Author, 1878), vol. 1, p. viii. 3 Julian P. Boyd and Charles Cullen, e’s., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 27 viols. to date (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950- ), vol. 16, p. 53. 4 David Humphrey to Matthew Carey (Printer of the American Museum), Nov. 1787, in Labatt, The Medellin History of the United States, vol. 1, p. xxiv. 5 Humphrey "succeeded in securing the cooperation of the Academe d’Insciptions et Belles(continued...) CRS-2 who had the responsibility for having the first gold medals struck in Paris, captured the essence of the feelings which inspired the Continental Congress to choose medals as its highest distinction and expression of national appreciation. Following a long standing historical practice, Congress commissioned gold medals as tributes for what were considered to be the most distinguished achievements. Silver and bronze medals, and ceremonial swords, were awarded for less eminent, but still notable, accomplishments.6 Of these, only the gold medal has been continuously awarded to the present day. The Continental Congress had not yet proclaimed its independence from Great Britain when, on March 25, 1776, George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, was tendered the first Congressional Gold Medal for his “wise and spirited conduct” in bringing about British evacuation of Boston.7 During the next 12 years, the Continental Congress authorized an additional six gold medals for Revolutionary military and naval leaders. In 1777, Major General Horatio Gates was recognized for his “brave and successful efforts” in bringing about the surrender of the British Army at Saratoga. Two years later, a similar honor was bestowed upon Major General Anthony Wayne in 1779 for his courageous assault on the British at Stony Point, New York.8 A gold medal was also given to Major Henry Lee in commemoration of the skill and bravery he exhibited against the British at Paulus Hook, New Jersey. Brigadier General Daniel Morgan and Major General Nathaniel Greene were praised for their gallant efforts in South Carolina during 1781. In recognition of his “valor and brilliant services” in capturing the Serapis, John Paul Jones was similarly honored in 1787.9 5 (...continued) Lettres in Paris and this learned institution nominated a committee of four among its members who worked very expeditiously in devising designs and inscriptions" for the medals the Continental Congress had authorized. Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli and Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, Medals Commemorating Battles of the American Revolution (Washington: The National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, 1973), p. 1. 6 T. Bailey Meyers, "Our National Medals," Magazine of American History, vol. 2, Sept. 1878, pp. 529-532. Altogether Congress authorized a total of 15 medals and 10 ceremonial swords during the Confederation period. Boyd, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 16, pp. 54-55. 7 U.S. Continental Congress, Journals of the Continental Congress: 1774-1789, vol. 4, March 25, 1776, p. 234. Brief histories of George Washington’s gold medal are found in Georgia Stamm Chamberlain, American Medals and Medalists (Annandale, VA: Designed and Lithographed by the Turnpike Press, Inc., 1963), pp. 16-17; R.W. Julian, Medals of the United States Mint: The First Century 1792-1892 (El Cajon, CA: The Token and Medal Society, Inc., 1977), pp. 114-115. 8 Journals of the Continental Congress, vol. 9, Nov. 4, 1777, pp. 861-862; vol. 14, July 26, 1779, p. 890. 9 Ibid., vol. 15, Sept. 24, 1779, p. 1099; vol. 19, Jan. 17, 1781, pp. 246-247; vol. 21, Oct. 19, 1781, pp. 1083-1085; vol. 33, Oct. 16, 1787, p. 687. For discussions of these medals, see: (continued...) CRS-3 First Medals Were Struck in Paris While the Continental Congress was prompt in approving each of these medals, those responsible for carrying out the wishes of Congress were far less expeditious. Because of its close ties with France, Congress turned to Paris for advice and assistance in having the medals struck. Unfortunately, Congress’ preoccupation with the American Revolution, together with the lengthy and complicated procedures which had to be followed in Paris, produced long delays. Thomas Jefferson was not able to present Washington his gold medal until March 21, 1790, some fourteen years after it had been approved. At the same time, Washington received a mahogany box containing a number of other gold medals ordered by Congress. Soon thereafter, these medals were transmitted by the former President to the various recipients.10 The gold medal conferred upon Major Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee for his “remarkable prudence” and “bravery” during the surprise raid of Paulus Hook, New Jersey, was the first to be struck in this country.11 Recipients in the Nineteenth Century Following the ratification of the Constitution, the first gold medal authorized by the Congress of the United States was given to Captain Thomas Truxtun in 1800 for his gallant effort during the action between the United States frigate Constellation and the French ship La Vengeance. In 1805, Commodore Edward Preble received a gold medal for gallantry and good conduct during the War with Tripoli.12 War of 1812 Subsequently, Congress commissioned 27 gold medals for notable victories and achievements in the War of 1812. This was more than four times as many as it had (...continued) Theodore T. Belote, "War Medals of the American Revolution," Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine, vol. 55, Sept. 1921, pp. 487-499; Boyd, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 16, pp. xxxv-xli, 53-66; Julian, Medals of the United States Mint, pp. 114117, 120, 122, 149; Labatt, The Medellin History of the United States, vol. 1, pp. 1-21, 2936, 40-45, 50-56, 97-112; Martha L. Turner, "Commemorative Medals of the American Revolution and the War of 1812," Numismatist, vol. 88, Jan. 1975, pp. 6-15. 10 Boyd, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 16, pp. xxxv, 66, 288-289n; and John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington, 39 viols. (Washington: GPO, 19311944), vol. 31, p. 27n. 11 12 Julian, Medals of the United States Mint, p. xviii. 2 Stat. 87, 346-347. See also Theodore T. Belote, "Naval War Medals of the United States 1800-1815, Part III," Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine, vol. 56, Jan. 1922, pp. 77-93; Julian, Medals of the United States Mint, p. 150; Labatt, The Medellin History of the United States, vol. 1, pp. 128-132. CRS-4 given during the American Revolution. "Scarcely a victory of any consequence was overlooked."13 The gold medal Congress approved on February 22, 1816, honoring Captain James Biddle’s “gallantry” in capturing the British sloop-of-war Penguin was the final naval award of this character awarded by Congress until World War II.14 Mexican War Gold medals would continue to be awarded for military achievements until the Civil War, but with far less frequency. In part this is explained by the fact that in the War with Mexico naval operations were negligible and military operations were principally confined to two expeditions led, respectively, by Major General Zachary Taylor and Major General Winfield Scott. Taylor’s heroics against the Mexicans earned him gold medals on three different occasions.15 Scott, for his efforts, was accorded a gold medal in 1848.16 Gold medals were also given to 10 officers and seamen belonging or attached to the French, British, and Spanish ships-of-war, who on December 10, 1846, gallantly rescued 37 of the officers and crew from the wreck of the United States brig Somers in Vera Cruz harbor.17 Heroic action of a very different type in 1854 prompted Congress to praise Commander Duncan N. Ingraham of the U.S.S. St. Louis for his efforts in rescuing Martin Koszta from illegal seizure and imprisonment aboard the Austrian war-brig Hussar.18 Congress Broadens the Scope of Its Gold Medal Soon after the Hussar episode, Congress broke with its tradition of only honoring heroism associated with the actions of American military or naval personnel. In 1858, Dr. Frederick A. Rose, an assistant-surgeon in the British Navy, was recognized for his kindness and humanity to sick American seamen aboard the U.S. steamer Susquehannah whose crew had been stricken with yellow fever.19 At the 13 Theodore T. Belote, "Military and Naval Medals of the War of 1812-1815, Part II," Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine, vol. 55, Nov. 1921, p. 639. 14 3 Stat. 341. See also Belote, "Naval War Medals of the United States 1800-1815, Part III," pp. 92-93; Julian, Medals of the United States Mint, p. 153; Labatt, The Medellin History of the United States, vol. 1, pp. 249-252. 15 9 Stat. 111, 206, 334-335. See also Chamberlain, American Medals and Medalists, pp. 75-93. 16 9 Stat. 333. See also Theodore T. Belote, "Military Medals of the War with Mexico and the Civil War," Numismatist, vol. 56, May 1922, pp. 280-281; Julian, Medals of the United States Mint, p. 138. 17 9 Stat. 208. 18 10 Stat. 594-595. 19 11 Stat. 369. See also Labatt, The Medellin History of the United States, vol. 2, pp. (continued...) CRS-5 behest of President Abraham Lincoln, Congress applauded Cornelius Vanderbilt in 1864 for his patriotic gift to the imperiled nation of a steamship which bore the donor’s name.20 Three years later, Cyrus W. Field was praised for his work in the laying of the transatlantic cable.21 Tribute was similarly paid to Private George F. Robinson for his “heroic conduct” in saving Secretary of State William H. Seward from an assassin’s knife on April 14, 1865.22 At the same time, Congress established the first permanent American military decoration with creation of the Medal of Honor. This award, which was conceived in the early 1860s, marked the beginning of a formalized policy by the United States of awarding military decorations. Although this medal was also to be presented in the name of the Congress of the United States and today is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor, the regulations for awarding the Medal of Honor have from the beginning been the responsibility of the armed services.23 There is a clear distinction between the Medal of Honor, which is a military award, and Congressional Gold Medals, which are authorized by Congress to honor particular individuals and events. During the Civil War, more than 1,500 Americans were awarded the Medal of Honor, but only one individual—Ulysses S. Grant—received a Congressional Gold Medal.24 Thirty-five years were to pass before Congress would bestow the award on another American military leader. (...continued) 362-369. 20 13 Stat. 401-402. See also U.S. President, 1861-1865 (Lincoln), Message of the President of the United States Recommending That Some Suitable Acknowledgment Be Made to Cornelius Vanderbilt for the Valuable Present to the United States of the Steamer "Vanderbilt," S. Ex. Doc. 71, 37th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1862), p. 1. 21 14 Stat. 574. See also U.S. President, 1865-1869 (A. Johnson), Gold Medal Presented to Cyrus W. Field. Message From the President in Relation to the Gold Medal Presented to Mr. Cyrus W. Field, H. Ex. Doc. 89, 40th Cong., 3rd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1869). 22 16 Stat. 704. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, George F. Robinson, report to accompany H.Res. 501, H.Rept. 33, 41st Cong., 3rd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1874). 23 12 Stat. 330, 623-624. See also U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Medal of Honor: History and Issues, by David Burrelli, CRS Report 95-519 F (Washington: Dec. 15, 1998); Above and Beyond: A History of the Medal of Honor From the Civil War to Vietnam (Boston: Boston Publishing Co., 1985); E. Kerrigan, American War Medals and Decorations (New York: The Viking Press), 1964, pp. 3-11; George Lang, Medal of Honor Recipients, 1863-1994, 2 viols. (New York: Facts on File, 1995); U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Medal of Honor Recipients 1863-1978, committee print no. 3, 96th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1979); Mendel L. Peterson, "The Navy Medal of Honor," Numismatist, vol. 63, June 1950, pp. 305-312; Ibid., "The Army Medal of Honor," Numismatist, vol. 63, Sept. 1950, pp. 557-565. 24 13 Stat. 399. See also Belote, "Military Medals of the War with Mexico and the Civil War," p. 282; Julian, Medals of the United States Mint, p. 140. CRS-6 On five occasions, in the interim, Congress expressed its gratitude for lifesaving contributions. In 1866 three merchant sea captains were recognized with gold medals for rescuing some 500 men from the wreck of the steamship San Francisco more than a decade earlier. In 1873, Congress expressed its admiration for the 10 men from Westerly, Rhode Island, who saved the lives of 32 persons from the wrecked steamer Metis, in the waters of Long Island Sound.25 The following year, the heroics of John Horn, Jr., who during an 11-year period had rescued 110 men, women, and children from drowning in the Detroit River, captured the attention of Congress.26 Joseph Francis was thanked in 1888 for his “life-long service to humanity” in the construction and perfection of lifesaving appliances, which had been instrumental in saving several hundreds of lives.27 In 1890, George Wallace Melville, chief engineer aboard the Arctic exploring steamer Jeannette, and seven of his shipmates were praised for their persistent efforts to find and assist their commanding officer after they became shipwrecked.28 Nineteenth century contributions of a far different nature prompted expressions of gratitude to philanthropists George Peabody of Massachusetts and John F. Slater of Connecticut for their substantial financial support for education of the underprivileged in the South and Southwest.29 25 14 Stat. 365-366; and 17 Stat. 638. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Commerce, Steamship San Francisco, H.Rept. 97, 39th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1866); Julian, Medals of the United States Mint, pp. 328, 332; Labatt, The Medellin History of the United States, vol. 2, pp. 412-417. 26 18 Stat. 573. A lengthy account of Horn’s heroics is found in "John Horn, Jr., of Detroit: The Man to Whom Congress Voted a Gold Medal for His Exertions in Saving Life," New York Times, June 28, l874, p. 9. On April 28, 1904, Congress authorized and directed the Secretary of the Treasury to strike and present to John Horn, Jr., a duplicate of the medal voted by Congress to him in 1874, which had been stolen from him in October 1901. 33 Stat. 1684-1685. See also Julian, Medals of the United States Mint, p. 331. 27 25 Stat. 1249. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Commerce, Joseph Francis, H.Rept. 529, 49th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1886). 28 26 Stat. 552-553. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Naval Affairs, Officers and Men of the Jeannette Arctic Expedition, H.Rept. 3183, 51st Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1891). 29 15 Stat. 20; 22 Stat. 636. See also U.S. President, 1865-1869 (A. Johnson), Gold Medal to George Peabody: Message From the President of the United States in Relation to the Gold Medal Presented to George Peabody, H. Exec. Doc. 53, 40th Cong., 3rd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1869); U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Education and Labor, In the Senate of the United States (Report on John F. Slater), H.Rept. 935, 47th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1883); U.S. Congress, Joint Committee on the Library, John F. Slater, H.Rept. 869, 49th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1886). CRS-7 Recipients in the Twentieth Century In the twentieth century, Congress has broadened the scope of such honors to include recognition of excellence in such varied fields as the arts, athletics, aviation, diplomacy, exploration, politics, religion, medicine, science, and entertainment. Actors, Authors, Entertainers, and Musicians Seventeen Americans from the arts and the world of entertainment have received Congressional Gold Medals to date. Composer George M. Cohan was the first to be so acclaimed, in 1936, for his patriotic songs “Over There” and “A Grand Old Flag.” Some eighteen years later, in recognition of Irving Berlin’s brilliance in composing “God Bless America” and other patriotic songs, Congress bestowed its second gold medal on an American song writer.30 During the 1960s, poet Robert Frost was praised for enriching the culture of the world; comedian Bob Hope was honored for outstanding “service to his country and the cause of peace,” and filmmaker Walt Disney was singled out for his “outstanding contributions to the United States and the world.”31 Opera singer and humanitarian Marian Anderson and actor John Wayne were similarly decorated for their distinguished careers and contributions to the nation and world in the late 1970s.32 Since 1980, author Louis L’Amour, choral music conductor Fred Waring; entertainer and humanitarian Danny Thomas; and author Elie Wiesel, one of the foremost spokesman of the victims of the Holocaust, were so honored.33 Singer Harry Chapin was recognized for his efforts to address issues of hunger around the 30 49 Stat. 2371; 68 Stat. A120. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on the Library, To Authorize the President to Present a Gold Medal to George M. Cohan in Recognition of His Patriotic Service, H.Rept. 2868, 74th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1936); and U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking and Currency, The Irving Berlin Medal, H.Rept. 1999, 83rd Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1954). 31 74 Stat. 883; 76 Stat. 93; and 82 Stat. 130-131. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, Robert Frost Medal, S.Rept. 1572, 86th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1960); U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking and Currency, Authorizing the Issuance of a Gold Medal to Bob Hope, H.Rept. 1716, 87th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1962); Ibid., Walt Disney Commemorative Medals, H.Rept. 1342, 90th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1968). 32 91 Stat. 19; 93 Stat. 32. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Authorizing the Issuance of a Gold Medal to John Wayne. S.Rept. 96-110, 96th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1979). 33 96 Stat. 315-316; 97 Stat. 1119-1120; 98 Stat. 173-175. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage, Gold Medal for Fred Waring, hearings on H.J.Res. 223, 97th Cong., lst sess., July 22, 1981 (Washington: GPO, 1981); Ibid., To Present a Gold Medal to Danny Thomas, hearings on H.J.Res. 93, 98th Cong., lst sess., Oct. 18, 1983 (Washington: GPO, 1983); "Authorizing Awarding of Special Congressional Gold Medals to Daughter of Harry S. Truman, Lady Bird Johnson, and Elie Wiesel," Congressional Record, vol. 130, April 26, 1984, pp. 10223-10225. CRS-8 world.34 In addition, Congress has memorialized the contributions of George and Ira Gershwin to American music, theater, and culture, Aaron Copland’s to American music composition; Andrew Wyeth’s to American art, and Frank Sinatra's to the entertainment industry through his endeavors as a producer, director, actor, and vocalist.35 Aeronautical and Space Pioneers Gold medals for outstanding contributions in air and space exploration have covered a broad spectrum of accomplishments. In a public ceremony at Dayton, Ohio, on June 18, 1909, Wilbur and Orville Wright were presented Congressional Gold Medals for their achievements in demonstrating to the world the potential of aerial navigation.36 Congress recognized Charles A. Lindbergh for his aeronautical achievements in 1928.37 A year later, the seven officers and men who conceived, organized, and commanded the first trans-Atlantic flight in the United States naval flying boat NC-4 were honored. Howard Hughes was praised in 1939 for “advancing the science of aviation.” At the close of World War II, Congress authorized a gold medal for American military aviation pioneer Brigadier General William (Billy) Mitchell.38 34 100 Stat 464. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage, To Provide Gold Medals Honoring the Family of Harry Chapin; Anatoly and Avital Shcharansky, hearings on H.R. 1207 and H.R. 4186, 99th Cong., 2nd sess., May 1, 1986 (Washington: GPO, 1986). 35 99 Stat. 288-289; 100 Stat. 952;102 Stat. 3331-3332; 111 Stat. 32-33. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage, To Provide Special Gold Medals Honoring George and Ira Gershwin, hearings on H.J.Res. 251, 99th Cong., lst sess., July 10, 1985 (Washington: GPO, 1985); Ibid., To Award a Special Congressional Gold Medal to Aaron Copland, hearings on H.R. 3041, 99th Cong., 2nd sess., Aug. 6, 1986 (Washington: GPO, 1986); Ibid., Gold Medal for Jesse Owens—H.R. 1270, Gold Medal for Andrew Wyeth—H.R. 593, hearings, 100th Cong., 2nd sess., July 12, 1988 (Washington: GPO, 1988), pp. 15-19, 39-47. 36 35 Stat. 1627. See also "Gold Medal by Congress to Wright Brothers," Numismatist, vol. 22, Aug. 1919, pp. 231-232; Arthur L. Newman, "Some Medals Struck in Honor of the Wright Brothers, "Numismatist, vol. 81, Dec. 1968, p. 1576. 37 45 Stat. 490. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures, Authorizing the Coinage of a Gold Medal in Commemoration of the Achievements of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, H.Rept. 722, 70th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1928). 38 45 Stat. 1158; 53 Stat. 152; 60 Stat. 1319. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Naval Affairs, To Authorize the President to Award, in the Name of Congress, Gold Medals of Appropriate Design to Albert C. Read, Elmer F. Stone, Walter Hinton, H.C. Rodd, J. L. Breese, and Eugene Rhodes, H.Rept. 2082, 70th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1929); U.S. Congress, House Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures, Howard Hughes, H.Rept. 1339, 76th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1939); U.S. Congress, House Committee on Military Affairs, Authorizing the Award of a Medal to William Mitchell, H.Rept. 2625, 79th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1946). CRS-9 In September 1959, Dr. Robert H. Goddard’s “historic pioneering research on space rockets, missiles, and jet propulsion” was acclaimed by Congress. Since that time, gold medals have been given to Lieutenant General Ira C. Eaker for his “distinguished career as an aviation pioneer and Air Force leader”; and to the first transatlantic balloonists: Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Anderson, and Larry Newman.39 Antarctic Explorers Congressional tributes have also been extended to several explorers of Antarctica. American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth received a gold medal for his polar flight of 1925 and transpolar flight of 1926. Also participating in the latter flight, and similarly honored, were Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen and Italian explorer Umberto Nobile.40 The undaunted services rendered by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd and the other members of the Byrd Expedition were praised with equal exuberance in 1930. Six years later, Lincoln Ellsworth received a second gold medal for his claims on behalf of the United States of approximately 350,000 square miles in Antarctica and for his 2,500 mile aerial survey of the heart of Antarctica.41 Acclaimed Lifesavers Despite the fact that several different lifesaving medals have been provided for over the years by law,42 Congress in the twentieth century has still periodically expressed its own admiration for acts of heroism. In 1902, three members of the Revenue Cutter Service were praised for a nearly 2,000 mile overland relief expedition to the American whaling fleet in the arctic region. At a March 1, 1913, White House ceremony, Captain Arthur Henry Rostron, commander of the steamship Carpathia, received a gold medal from President William Howard Taft for his prompt 39 73 Stat. 562-563; 92 Stat. 1060; 93 Stat. 45. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking and Currency, Gold Medal Honoring the Late Prof. Robert H. Goddard, H.Rept. 882, 86th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1959); Ibid., Presentation of Gold Medal to Lt. Gen. Ira C. Eaker, H.Rept. 95-1603, 95th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1978); and U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, Authorizing the Issuance of Gold Medals to the First Transatlantic Baloonists: Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Anderson, and Larry Newman, S.Rept. 96-108, 96th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1979). 40 45 Stat. 2026-2027. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, A Medal of Honor to Lincoln Ellsworth, S.Rept. 831, 70th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1928). 41 46 Stat. 379; and 49 Stat. 2324. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Naval Affairs. Authorizing the Presentation of Medals to the Officers and Men of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition, S.Rept. 688, 71st Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1930); U.S. Congress, House Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures, Proposing the Presentation of Medals to the Officers and Men of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition, H.Rept. 1402, 71st Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1930); U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, Special Gold Medal to Lincoln Ellsworth, S.Rept. 1658, 74th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1936). 42 For example see 18 Stat. 127; 33 Stat. 743; 71 Stat. 69. CRS-10 and heroic response in rescuing 704 survivors from the wreck of the Titanic. The following March, Captain Paul H. Kreibohm of the American steamer Kroonland, and four members of his crew, were awarded gold medals for rescuing 89 people from the burning steamer Volturno in the North Atlantic.43 Rev. Francis X. Quinn, pastor of the Church of the Guardian Angel in New York City, was honored in 1939 for risking his life in persuading an armed gunman holding an elderly couple hostage to surrender to police. The following January, a medal was authorized for William Sinnott who had been wounded while guarding Franklin D. Roosevelt in Miami just prior to his first inauguration. A year later, 11-old Roland Boucher of Burlington, Vermont, saved the lives of four children who had broken through the ice on Lake Champlain near Juniper Island. Congress saluted Boucher’s bravery and heroism in 1943.44 Military Leaders In 1900, Congress once again returned to the practice of recognizing distinguished military service when it praised First Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb, commander of the revenue cutter Hudson for rescuing the United States naval torpedo boat Winslow under a “most galling fire from the enemy’s guns.”45 At the conclusion of World War II, the valor, bravery, and heroism of Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King and General of the Army George C. Marshall, two of America’s most able military leaders during the war, were recognized. Also in 1946, General John J. Pershing was honored for his “heroic achievements” as Commander in Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe in World War I and for his “unselfish devotion to the service of his country” during World War II.46 The four known 43 32 Stat. 492; 37 Stat, 639; and 38 Stat. 769. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Medals to Certain Officers in the Revenue Service, H.Rept. 2336, 57th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1902); U.S. Congress, House Committee on Merchant Marines and Fisheries, Capt. Arthur Henry Rostron, H.Rept. 830, 62nd Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1912). 44 53 Stat. 1533; 54 Stat. 1283; and 56 Stat 1099-1100. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures, Rev. Francis X. Quinn, H.Rept. 1338, 76th Cong. lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1939); U.S. Congress, House Committee on the Library, Presentation of a Medal (Roland Boucher), H.Rept. 431, 77th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1941). 45 31 Stat. 716. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Lieut. Frank H. Newcomb, Etc., H.Rept. 302, 56th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1900); U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, Lieut. Frank H. Newcomb, Etc., S.Rept. 29, 56th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1900). 46 60 Stat. 1134; and 1297. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Military Affairs, Tendering the Thanks of Congress to General of the Army George Catlett Marshall and to Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King, S.Rept. 983, 79th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1946); Ibid., Medal for General Pershing, S.Rept. 1832, 79th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1946). CRS-11 surviving veterans of the Civil War received Congressional Gold Medals a decade later.47 Rear Admiral Hyman George Rickover was applauded in 1958 for his achievements in “directing the development and construction of the world’s first nuclear-powered ships and the first large-scale nuclear power reactor devoted exclusively to the production of electricity.” A quarter of a century later, Rickover was accorded a second gold medal for his contributions to the “development of safe nuclear energy and the defense of the United States.”48 Meanwhile, in 1962, Congress authorized a Congressional Gold Medal for General Douglas MacArthur in recognition of his “gallant service” to the United States.49 Three military leaders have been so acclaimed in the 1990s. General Matthew B. Ridgeway's more than 40 years of distinguished service as a military commander earned recognition at the beginning of the decade. Following Operation Desert Storm, which culminated with the successful liberation of the nation of Kuwait, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf and General Colin L. Powell were honored. Schwarzkopf was cited for his “exemplary performance as a military leader in coordinating the planning, strategy, and execution of the United States” and coalition forces in liberating Kuwait. Powell was recognized for his “exemplary performance as a military leader and advisor to the President in planning and coordinating the military response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.”50 Notables in Science and Medicine Historic achievements in science and medicine also have been watched closely by Congress. For discovering the cause and means of transmission of yellow fever, Major Walter Reed and his 21 associates were recognized in 1928. Gold medals were subsequently authorized for Mrs. Richard Aldrich and Anna Bouligny some four decades after their outstanding, unselfish, and wholly voluntary service in establishing 47 70 Stat. 577. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, Civil War Veterans Medals, S.Rept. 2423, 84th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1956). 48 72 Stat. 985; 96 Stat. 126-127. See also "Conferring of Medal on Rear Adm. Hyman George Rickover, United States Navy," Congressional Record, vol. 104, Aug. 18, 1958, pp. 18107-18108; "Rear Adm. Hyman George Rickover," Congressional Record, vol. 4, Aug. 18, 1958, pp. 18345-18355; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage, Gold Medal for Admiral Hyman George Rickover, hearing on H.R. 5432, 97th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1982). 49 76 Stat. 760. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur Medal, S.Rept. 2116, 87th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1963). 50 P.L. 101-510, 104 Stat. 1720-1721; P.L. 102-32, 104 Stat. 175-176; P.L. 102-33, 104 Stat. l77-178. CRS-12 and operating “hospitals for the care and treatment of military patients in Puerto Rico” during the War with Spain.51 Thomas A. Edison was honored for the development and application of “inventions that have revolutionized civilization.” Similar congressional tributes were subsequently extended to Dr. Jonas E. Salk, for discovering a serum for the prevention of polio, to Dr. Thomas Anthony Dooley III for his unselfish medical care among the underprivileged peoples of the world, particularly in southeast Asia, and to Mary Lasker, whom some consider the first lady of medicine and science in this country, for her “humanitarian contributions in the area of medical research and education, urban beautification and the fine arts.”52 Awards for Athletic Prowess, Humanitarian Contributions, and Public Service The first politician to be honored with a gold medal was Vice President Alben W. Barkley in 1949.53 Since that time, Congress has saluted the distinguished and dedicated public service of Sam Rayburn, Robert F. Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey, Harry S. Truman, and former President Gerald R. Ford and his wife Betty.54 Tribute 51 45 Stat. 1409-1410; 52 Stat. 1365. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Military Affairs, To Recognize the High Public Service Rendered by Major Walter Reed and Those Associated with Him in the Discovery of the Cause and Means of Transmission of Yellow Fever, S.Rept. 1912, 70th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1929); Ibid., Authorizing the President to Present Gold Medals to Mrs. Robert Aldrich and Posthumously to Anna Bouligny, S.Rept. 1745, 75th Cong., 3rd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1938). 52 45 Stat. 1012; 69 Stat. 589; 75 Stat. 87; 101 Stat. 1441. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures, Authorizing a Gold Medal in Commemoration of the Achievements of Thomas A. Edison, S.Rept. 1285, 70th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1928); U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking and Currency, Medal for Dr. Jonas E. Salk., H.Rept. 1351, 84th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1955); U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, Medal for Dr. Thomas Anthony Dooley III, S.Rept. 257, 87th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1961); U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage, Gold Medal for Mary Lasker (H.R. 390), hearings on H.R. 390, 100th Cong., lst sess., Sept. 15, 1987 (Washington: GPO, 1987). 53 63 Stat. 599; See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, Medal for Vice President Alben W. Barkley, S.Rept. 742, 81st Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1949). 54 76 Stat. 605; 92 Stat. 46; 93 Stat. 46; 98 Stat. 173-174; P.L. 105-277, U.S. Congress, House, Making Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1999, conference report to accompany H.R. 4328, H.Rept. 105-825, 105th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, Oct. 19, 1998), p. 620. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, Sam Rayburn Medal, S.Rept. 2021, 87th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1962); Ibid., Authorizing the President of the United States to Present a Gold Medal to the Widow of Robert F. Kennedy, S.Rept. 95-1316, 95th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1978); Ibid., Authorizing the Issuance of a Gold Medal to the Widow of Hubert H. Humphrey, S.Rept. 96-109, 96th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1979); U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on (continued...) CRS-13 was also paid to Representative Leo J. Ryan, following his “untimely” assassination while performing his responsibilities as a Member of the House of Representatives in Guyana.55 Athletes so recognized have been baseball hall of famer Roberto Clemente, heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis, and track and field star Jesse Owens. Clemente was also praised for his "civil, charitable, and humanitarian contributions," and Owens for his "humanitarian contributions to public service, civil rights, and international goodwill.”56 A lifelong commitment to the principles of freedom, equality, justice, and peace earned civil rights worker Roy Wilkins acclaim on Capitol Hill. Sustained efforts to preserve the beauty of our nation prompted praise for Lady Bird Johnson and Laurence Spelman Rockefeller. Lady Bird was applauded for her “outstanding contributions to the improvement and beautification of America,” and Rockefeller for his "leadership on behalf of natural resource conservation and historic preservation.57 The Little Rock Nine—Jean Brown Trickey, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Melba Patillo Beals, Terrence Roberts, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Thelma Mothershed Wair, Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, and Jefferson Thomas—were recognized for the selfless heroism they exhibited "in the cause of civil rights by integrating Central High School in Little Rock Arkansas."58 Most recently, Rosa Parks, the “First Lady of Civil Rights,” was honored for her “quiet dignity,” which “ignited the most significant social movement in the history of the United States.”59 It is humanitarian efforts, however, that have dominated the contributions commemorated during the past five years. Eight of the 18 gold medals awarded by the 103rd -105rd Congresses were given to individuals who have dedicated their lives (...continued) Consumer Affairs and Coinage, Gold Medals to the Daughter of Harry S. Truman; Lady Bird Johnson; and the Widow of Roy Wilkins, hearings on H.R. 3614, H.J.Res. 394, and H.R.Res. 3240, 98th Cong., 2nd sess., March 6, 1984 (Washington: GPO, 1984). 55 97 Stat. 992. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage, To Present a Gold Medal to the Family of the Late Honorable Leo J. Ryan ..., hearings on H.R. 3348 and H.R. 3321, 98th Cong., lst sess., Sept. 20, 1983 (Washington: GPO, 1983). 56 87 Stat. 71; 96 Stat. 315; 102 Stat. 1717. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs; Roberto Walker Clemente Medal, S.Rept. 93-133, 93rd Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1973); "Gold Medal Bill," Congressional Record, vol. 128, Aug. 2, 1982, pp. 18790-18793; "Awarding of Special Congressional Gold Medals," Ibid., Aug. 12, 1982, pp. 20821-20822; U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage, Gold Medal for Jesse Owens—H.R. 1270, Gold Medal for Andrew Wyeth—H.R. 593, hearings, 100th Cong., 2nd sess., July 12, 1988 (Washington: GPO, 1988). 57 98 Stat. 173-174, 186; 104 Stat. 197-199. See also Gold Medals to the Daughter of Harry S. Truman; Lady Bird Johnson; and the Widow of Roy Wilkins, pp. 11-108. 58 P.L. 105-277, 112 Stat. 2681-597. 59 P.L. 106-26, 113 Stat. CRS-14 to the service of others. Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the leader of the Lubavitch movement for more than four decades, was recognized for his "outstanding and enduring contributions toward world education, morality, and acts of charity." Billy Graham, "America's most respected and admired evangelical leader for the past half century," and his wife Ruth, were honored for "their outstanding and enduring contributions toward faith, morality, and charity." Former President Gerald Ford and his wife Betty were honored "their dedicated public service and outstanding humanitarian contributions to the people of the United States."60 Mother Teresa of Calcutta was acclaimed for her nearly 70 years of "selfless dedication to humanity and charitable works." Ecumenical Patrick Bartholomew, the spiritual leader of 300 million Orthodox Christians around the world, was lauded for "outstanding and enduring contributions to religious understanding and peace." Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was memorialized for his "lifelong dedication to the abolition of apartheid and promotion of reconciliation among the people of the Republic of South Africa."61 These recent awards are not without precedent, since the first and only gold medal given to an organization honored the American Red Cross in 1979 for "unselfish and humanitarian service to the people of the United States."62 Foreign Recipients Sixteen of the Congressional Gold Medals authorized through 1998 have gone to non-Americans. Eight years after Congress paid tribute to Dr. Frederick A. Rose of the British Navy in 1858,63 Captain Creighton, of the British ship Three Bells, won acclaim in 1866 for aiding in the rescue of some five hundred men from the wreck of the steamship San Francisco. Two American sea captains, Captain Low, of the bark Kilby of Boston, and Captain Stouffer, of the ship Antarctic of New York, were also were recognized for their role in rescuing survivors from the San Francisco.64 Gold medals were also given to the diplomatic representatives of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile who acted as mediators between the United States and Mexico in 1914,65 and to Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen and Italian explorer Umberto 60 108 Stat. 4799-4800; 110 Stat. 772-77; P.L. 105-277 (House Report 105-825, p. 620). 61 111 Stat. 35-36, 1170-1171; 112 Stat. 895-896. 62 93 Stat. 1063. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Authorizing the Issuance of a Gold Medal to the American Red Cross, S.Rept. 96429, 96th Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1979). 63 See footnote 19. 64 See footnote 25. See also Edouard A. Stackpole, comp., The Wreck of the Steamer San Francisco (Mystic, CT: The Maine Historical Society Association, Inc., Dec. 1954). 65 38 Stat. 1228. CRS-15 Nobile for their participation in American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth’s polar flight of 1925 and his 1926 transpolar flight.66 In 1969, President Nixon was authorized to present a gold medal in the name of the United States and in the name of Congress to the widow of the late British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.67 Canadian Ambassador to Iran Kenneth Taylor was honored in March 1980 for his efforts in securing the safe return of six American Embassy officials in their escape from Tehran.68 Congress recognized Simon Wiesenthal of Austria in 1980 for his dedicated action in bringing to justice Nazi war criminals who had gone into hiding at the end of World War II.69 Early in 1982, Her Majesty Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands was awarded a gold medal in recognition of the bicentennial anniversary of diplomatic and commercial relations between her country and the United States.70 Natan (Anatoly) and Avital Shcharansky of the former Soviet Union were applauded in 1986 for their “supreme dedication and total commitment to the cause of individual human rights and freedoms.”71 During the 105th Congress, the President was authorized to award gold medals to three additional foreign recipients—Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew, a Turkish Citizen, and Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela of the Republic of South Africa.72 Design and Casting of Gold Medals After a Congressional Gold Medal bill has been approved by both houses of Congress and signed into law by the President, officials of the United States Mint meet with the sponsors of the legislation and members of the honoree’s family to discuss possible designs for the medal. Photographs of the honoree are also examined 66 See footnote 40. 67 83 Stat. 8-9. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, The Winston Churchill Medal, S.Rept. 91-95, 91st Cong., lst sess. (Washington: GPO, 1969). 68 94 Stat. 79. See also U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Consumer Affairs and Coinage, Legislation Authorizing Issuance of Gold Medals to Canadian Ambassador Kenneth Taylor; Simon Wisenthal; Gerald F. Spiess; Commemorative Medals for the United States Capitol Historical Society, hearings, 96th Cong., 2nd sess., Feb. 8, 1980 (Washington: GPO, 1980), pp. 1-3, 11-39. 69 94 Stat. 101. See also U.S. Congress., Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Authorizing the Issuance of a Gold Medal to Simon Wiesenthal, S.Rept. 96-435, 96th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1980). 70 96 Stat. 18-19. See also "Gold Medal for Queen Beatrix," Congressional Record, vol. 128, March 2, 1982, pp. 2730-2732; and "Senate Joint Resolution 157—Awarding of a Special Gold Medal to Her Majesty Queen Beatrix," Congressional Record, vol. 128, March 4, 1982, pp. 3280-3281. 71 100 Stat. 432-433. See also To Provide Gold Medals Honoring the Family of Harry Chapin; Anatoly and Avital Shcharansky, pp. 45-62. 72 See footnote 60. CRS-16 during this meeting. Mint engravers then prepare a series of sketches of possible designs for consideration and comment by the Commission of Fine Arts73 and subsequently the Secretary of the Treasury, who makes the final decision on the medal’s design. Once the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the honoree’s family, has made a selection, the design is sculptured, a dye is made, and the medal is struck at the Philadelphia Mint. The Mint then notifies the White House and arrangements are made for a formal presentation by the President.74 The cost of issuing a Congressional Gold Medal, generally about $30,000, is charged against the Numismatic Public Enterprise Fund. Congress established this revolving fund “in the Treasury of the United States ... to be available to the Secretary for numismatic operations and programs of the United States Mint without fiscal year limitations.”75 The authorizing legislation in each case typically includes a provision that allows the Secretary of the Treasury to “strike and sell duplicates in bronze of the gold medal struck ... at a price sufficient to cover the costs thereof, including labor, materials, dies, use of machinery, overhead expenses, and the cost of the gold medal.”76 Monies received from the sales of the bronze duplicates are deposited in the Numismatic Public Enterprise Fund.77 73 An executive order (E.O. 3524) signed by President Warren G. Harding on July 28, 1921, provided "that essential matters relating to the design of medals, insignia and coins, produced by the executive departments ... shall be submitted to the Commission of Fine Arts for advice as to the merits of such designs before” the Secretary of the Treasury approves them. For current language, see 45 C.F.R. 2101.1(d), and 2102.11. 74 Presidents do not, however, always make the presentations. Vice President George Bush presented the Red Cross medal to board chairman Jerome H. Holland at Constitution Hall in Washington on May 21, 1981. "Personalities," Washington Post, May 22, 1981, p. F2. Senator Strom Thurmond presented Admiral Hyman J. Rickover’s second gold medal to Mr. Rickover in the Capitol’s Statuary Hall on November 1, 1983. Elizabeth Kastor, "Medal for Military Maverick,"Washington Post, Nov. 2, 1983, pp. B1, B8. 75 31 U.S.C. 5134 (b). 76 See for example P.L. 105-15, 111 Stat. 36; and P.L. 105-51, 111 Stat. 1171. The bill for the most recently approved medal, which was awarded to Nelson Rolihlahla, used slightly different language. It stated that the "Secretary may strike and sell duplicates in bronze of the gold medal struck ... at a price sufficient to cover the costs of the medals, including labor, materials, dies, use of machinery, and overhead expenses." P.L. 105-215. 77 Congressional Gold Medals generally are three inches in diameter and contain approximately 15 ounces of gold, depending on the height of the design relief. During the Administration of President Jimmy Carter, when gold was quite expensive, the size and the weight of the medals were reduced to 1½ inches in diameter and contained 1½ to two ounces of gold. Subsequently, when the price of gold dropped after President Ronald Reagan took office, the former dimension and weight were restored. Three inch bronze duplicates and 1½ inch bronze replicas of the each medal are sold by the Mint to help recover the cost of striking a gold medal. Manufacturing and material costs dictate the price of the reproductions. CRS-17 Current Legislative Procedures Rule VII(c)(vii) of the House Committee on Banking and Financial Services requires that Congressional Gold Medal legislation be cosponsored by at least twothirds (290) of the Members of the House. The rule also requires the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Policy to apply the following standards in considering legislation authorizing Congressional Gold Medals: ! The recipient shall be a natural person. ! The recipient shall have performed an achievement that has an impact on American history and culture that is likely to be recognized as a major achievement in the recipient’s field long after the achievement. ! The recipient shall not have received a medal previously for the same or substantially the same achievement. ! The recipient shall be living, or, if deceased, shall have been deceased for not less than five years and not more than 25 years. ! The achievements were performed in the recipient’s field of endeavor, and represent either a lifetime of continuous superior achievements or a single achievement so significant that the recipient is recognized and acclaimed by others in the same field, as evidenced by the recipient having received the highest honors in the field.78 The Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee requires that at least 67 Senators must cosponsor any Congressional Gold Medal or commemorative coin bill or resolution before the committee will consider it.79 78 “Rules of the Committee on Banking and Financial Services for the 106 th Congress,” remarks in the House, Congressional Record, vol. 145, Feb. 3, 1999, p. H407. 79 “Adoption of the Rules of Procedure of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs,” remarks in the Senate, Congressional Record, vol. 145, Feb. 6, 1999, p. S1334. CRS-18 Appendix: Recipients of Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1998 A Chronological List George Washington. In recognition of the “wise and spirited conduct” of George Washington, and the officers and soldiers under his command, in the siege and acquisition of Boston. Approved March 25, 1776 (U.S. Continental Congress, Journal of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, 34 viols. (Washington: GPO, 1906, vol. 4, p. 234). Major General Horatio Gates. In recognition of the “brave and successful efforts” of Major General Horatio Gates, commander in chief in the northern department, and Major General Benjamin Lincoln and Major General Benedict Arnold, and the other officers and troops under his command, “in support of the independence of their country at Saratoga.” Approved Nov. 4, 1777 (Journal of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, vol. 9, pp. 861-862). Major General Anthony Wayne. In recognition of the “good conduct, coolness, discipline, and firm intrepidity” of Major General Anthony Wayne, and the officers and soldiers under his command, in the assault of the enemy’s works at Stony Point. Approved July 26, 1779 (Journal of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, vol. 14, p. 890). Major Henry Lee. In recognition of the “remarkable prudence, address and bravery” exhibited by Major Henry Lee, and the non-commissioned officers and soldiers under his command, for their surprise raid of Pawles (Paulus) Hook, New Jersey, in August 1779. Approved Sept. 24, 1779 (Journal of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, vol. 15, pp. 1099-1102). Brigadier General Daniel Morgan. In recognition of the “fortitude and good conduct” displayed by Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, and the officers and men under his command, in the action at Cowpens, in the State of South Carolina on January 17, 1781. Approved March 9, 1781 (Journal of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, vol. 19, pp. 246-247). Major General Nathaniel Greene. In recognition of Major General Nathaniel Greene’s “wise, decisive and magnanimous conduct in the action” of September 8, 1781, “near Eutaw Springs, in South Carolina; in which, with a force inferior in number to that of the enemy, he obtained a most signal victory.” Approved Oct. 29, 1781 (Journal of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, vol. 21, pp. 1083-1084). John Paul Jones. In recognition of the “valor and brilliant services” of John Paul Jones in commanding a “squadron of French and American ships under the flag and commission of the United States off the coast of Great Britain.” Approved Oct. 16, 1787 (Journal of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, vol. 33, p. 687). Captain Thomas Truxtun. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Captain Thomas Truxtun in the action between the United States frigate CRS-19 Constellation and the French ship of war La Vengeance. Approved March 29, 1800 (2 Stat. 87). Commodore Edward Preble. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” displayed by Captain Edward Preble, and the officers, petty officers, seamen and marines attached to the squadron under his command, in the several attacks on the town, batteries, and naval force of Tripoli in 1804. Approved March 3, 1805 (2 Stat. 346-347). Captain Isaac Hull, Captain Stephen Decatur, and Captain Jacob Jones. In recognition of the “gallantry, good conduct, and services” of Captain Isaac Hull of the frigate Constitution, Captain Stephen Decatur of the frigate United States, and Captain Jacob Jones of the sloop-of-war Wasp, in their respective conflicts with the British frigates the Guerriere and the Macedonian, and sloop-of-war Frolic. Approved Jan. 29, 1813 (2 Stat. 830). Captain William Bainbridge. In recognition of the “gallantry, good conduct and services of Captain William Bainbridge,” and the officers and crew of the frigate Constitution, in the capture of the British frigate Java, after a “brave and skillful combat.” Approved March 3, 1813 (2 Stat. 831). Captain Oliver Hazard Perry and Captain Jesse D. Elliott. In recognition of the “decisive and glorious victory gained on Lake Erie” by Captain Oliver Hazard Perry and Captain Jesse D. Elliott, on Sept. 10, 1813. Approved Jan. 6, 1814 (3 Stat. 141). Lieutenant William Burrows and Lieutenant Edward R. M’Call. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Lieutenant William Burrows and Lieutenant Edward R. M’Call of the brig Enterprise, in the conflict with the British sloop Boxer on September 4, 1813. Approved Jan. 6, 1814 (3 Stat. 141-142). Captain James Lawrence. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Captain James Lawrence, and the officers and crew of the sloop-of-war Hornet, in the capture of the British vessel of war, the Peacock. Approved Jan. 11, 1814 (3 Stat. 142). Captain Thomas MacDonough, Captain Robert Henly, and Lieutenant Stephen Cassin. In recognition of the “decisive and splendid victory” of Captain Thomas MacDonough and Lieutenant Stephen Cassin, gained on Lake Champlain on September 11, 1814. Approved Oct. 20, 1814 (3 Stat. 245-246). Captain Lewis Warrington. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Captain Lewis Warrington, and the officers and crew of the sloop-of-war Peacock in the action with the British brig Epervier on April 29, 1814. Approved Oct. 21, 1814 (3 Stat. 246). Captain Johnston Blakely. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Captain Johnston Blakely, and the officers and crew of the sloop Wasp in the action with the British sloop-of-war Reindeer on June 28, 1814. Approved Nov. 3, 1814 (3 Stat. 246-247). CRS-20 Major General Jacob Brown. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Major General Jacob Brown, and the “officers and men, of the regular army, and of the militia under his command ... in the successive battles of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie, in Upper Canada, in which British veteran soldiers were beaten and repulsed by equal and inferior numbers.” Approved Nov. 3, 1814 (3 Stat. 247). Major General Winfield Scott. In recognition of the “uniform gallantry and good conduct” of Major General Winfield Scott “in the successive conflicts of Chippewa and Niagara.” Approved Nov. 3, 1814 (3 Stat. 247). Brigadier General Eleazar W. Ripley, Brigadier General James Miller, and Major General Peter B. Porter. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Brigadier General Eleazar W. Ripley, Brigadier General James Miller, and Major General Peter B. Porter “in the several conflicts of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie. Approved Nov. 3, 1814 (3 Stat. 247). Major General Edmund P. Gaines. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of General Edmund P. Gaines, and the officers and men under his command, in defeating the British army at Erie on August 15, 1814. Approved Nov. 3, 1814 (3 Stat. 247). Major General Alexander Macomb. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Major General Alexander Macomb, and the officers and men under his command, in defeating a veteran British army at Plattsburg on September 11, 1814. Approved Nov. 3, 1814 (3 Stat. 247). Major General Andrew Jackson. In recognition of the “valor, skill and good conduct” of Major General Andrew Jackson, and the officers and soldiers of the regular army, of the militia, and of the volunteers under his command, which was conspicuously displayed against the British army at New Orleans on January 8, 1815. Approved Feb. 27, 1815 (3 Stat. 249). Captain Charles Stewart. In recognition of the “gallantry, good conduct and services” of Captain Charles Stewart, and the officers and crew, of the frigate Constitution, in capturing the British vessels of war, the Cyane and the Levant, after a brave and skillful combat. Approved Feb. 22, 1816 (3 Stat. 341). Captain James Biddle. In recognition of the “gallantry, good conduct and services” of Captain James Biddle, and the officers and crew, of the sloop-of-war Hornet, in capturing the British sloop-of-war Penguin, after a brave and skillful combat. Approved Feb. 22, 1816 (3 Stat. 341). Major General William Henry Harrison and Governor Isaac Shelby. In recognition of the “gallantry and good behavior” of Major William Henry Harrison and Governor Isaac Shelby, and the officers and men under their command, “in defeating the combined British and Indian forces under Major General Proctor, on the Thames, in Upper Canada, on October 5, 1813, and in capturing the British army with their baggage, camp equipage and artillery.” Approved April 4, 1818 (3 Stat. 476). CRS-21 Colonel George Croghan. In recognition of the “gallantry and good conduct” of Colonel George Croghan in the defense of Fort Stephenson in 1813. Approved Feb. 13, 1835 (4 Stat. 792). Major General Zachary Taylor. In recognition of the “fortitude, skill, enterprise, and courage” of Major General Zachary Taylor, and his officers and men, which distinguished the brilliant operations on the Rio Grande. Approved July 16, 1846 (9 Stat. 111). Major General Zachary Taylor. In recognition of the “fortitude, skill, enterprise, and courage” of Major General Zachary Taylor, and his officers and men, which distinguished the brilliant military operations at Monterey. Approved March 2, 1847 (9 Stat. 206). Rescuers of the Officers and Crew of the U. S. Brig Somers. In recognition of the “officers and men belonging or attached to the French, British, and Spanish ships-of-war in the harbor of Vera Cruz, who so gallantly, and at the imminent peril of their lives, aided rescuing from a watery grave many of the officers and crew of the United States brig Somers.” The records of the United States Mint indicate that 10 gold medals were struck in commemoration of the gallant effort of the Somers. Approved March 3, 1847 (9 Stat. 208). Major General Winfield Scott. In recognition of the “uniform gallantry and good conduct” of Major General Winfield Scott, and the officers and men of the regular and volunteer corps under him, “conspicuously displayed at the siege and capture of the city of Vera Cruz and castle of San Juan de Ulloa,” on March 29, 1847; in the successive battles of Cerro Gordo on April 18, San Antonio and Churubusco on August 19 and 20; in the “victories achieved in front of the city of Mexico” on September 8 and 11-13; and for the capture of the metropolis on September 14, “in which the Mexican troops, greatly superior in numbers, and with every advantage of position, were in every conflict signally defeated by the American arms.” Approved March 9, 1848 (9 Stat. 333). Major General Zachary Taylor. In recognition of the “valor, skill, and good conduct” of Major General Zachery Taylor, and the officers and soldiers of the regular army and of the volunteers under his command, “conspicuously displayed” on February 22 and 23, 1848, in the battle of Buena Vista, in “defeating a Mexican army under the command of General Santa Anna of more than four times their number.” Approved May 9, 1848 (9 Stat. 334-335). Commander Duncan N. Ingraham. In recognition of the “gallant and judicious conduct” of Commander Duncan N. Ingraham “in extending protection to Martin Koszta, by rescuing him from illegal seizure and imprisonment on board the Austrian war-brig Hussar.” Approved Aug. 4, 1854 (10 Stat. 594-595). Frederick A. Rose. In recognition of “Assistant-Surgeon Frederick A. Rose, of the British navy, who volunteered, with the permission of his commanding officer, to join the Susquehannah,” at a time when many of its crew had yellow fever, “at imminent personal risk, devoted himself, on the voyage from Jamaica to New York, to care for the sick remaining on board.” Approved May 11, 1858 (11 Stat. 369). CRS-22 Major General Ulysses S. Grant. In recognition of “gallantry and good conduct” of Ulysses S. Grant, and the officers and men who fought under his command during the Civil War, in the battles in which they engaged. Approved Dec. 17, 1863 (13 Stat. 399). Cornelius Vanderbilt. In recognition of Cornelius Vanderbilt’s “gift to his imperiled country” of the steamship Vanderbilt, which was “actively employed in the service of the Republic against the rebel devastations of her commerce.” Approved Jan. 28, 1864 (13 Stat. 401). Captains Creighton, Low, and Stouffer. In recognition of the “gallant conduct” of Captain Creighton, of the ship Three Bells, of Glasgow; Captain Low, of the bark Kilby, of Boston; and Captain Stouffer, of the ship Antarctic, in rescuing about 500 men from the wreck of the steamer San Francisco. Approved July 26, 1866 (14 Stat. 365-366). Cyrus W. Field. In recognition of the “foresight, courage, and determination” of Cyrus W. Field “in establishing telegraphic communications by means of the Atlantic cable traversing mid-ocean and connecting the Old World with the New.” Approved March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. 574). George Peabody. In recognition of George Peabody’s “great and peculiar beneficence” in giving $2 million “for the promotion of education in the most destitute portions of the southern and southwestern States.” Approved March 16, 1867 (15 Stat. 20). George F. Robinson. In recognition of the “heroic conduct” of George F. Robinson in saving the life of Secretary of State William H. Seward on April 14, 1865. Approved March 1, 1871 (16 Stat. 704). Captain Jared S. Crandall, and Others. In recognition of the services of Captain Jared S. Crandall, Albert Crandall, Daniel F. Larkin, Frank Larkin, Bryon Green, John D. Harvey, Courtland Gavitt, Eugene Nash, Edwin Nash, and William Nash of Westerly, Rhode Island, who “so gallantly volunteered to man a life-boat and a fishing-boat, and saved the lives of thirty-two persons from the wreck of the steamer Metis on the waters of the Long lsland sound,” on August 31, 1872. Approved Feb. 24, 1873 (17 Stat. 638). John Horn, Jr. In recognition and commemoration of the “heroic and humane exploits” of John Horn, Jr., in rescuing 110 men, women, and children from drowning in the Detroit River. Approved June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. 573). On April 28, 1904, Congress authorized and directed the Secretary of the Treasury to strike off and present to John Horn, Jr., a duplicate of the medal voted by Congress to him in 1874, which was stolen from him in October 1901. Approved April 28, 1904 (33 Stat. 1684-1685). John F. Slater. In recognition of John F. Slater’s contribution of $1 million for the purpose of “uplifting the lately emancipated population of the Southern States and CRS-23 their prosperity, by conferring on them the blessings of Christian education.” Approved Feb. 5, 1883 (22 Stat. 636). Joseph Francis. In recognition of Joseph Francis’ “life-long services to humanity and to his country . . . in the construction and perfection of life-saving appliances by which thousands of lives have been saved.” Approved Aug. 27, 1888 (25 Stat. 1249). Chief Engineer George Wallace Melville and Others. In recognition of the “meritorious service” of Chief Engineer George Wallace Melville, United States Navy, “in successfully directing the party under his command after the wreck of the Arctic exploring steamer Jeannette, and of his persistent efforts through dangers and hardships to find and assist his commanding officer and other members of the expedition before he himself was out of peril.” This Act does not specifically indicate what type of medal was to be presented to Chief Engineer Melville and the officers and men of the Jeannette “as an expression of the high esteem Congress [held] their services.” The records of the United States Mint, however, indicate that eight gold medals were struck in commemoration of the perils encountered by the Jeannette expedition. Approved Sept. 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 552-553). First Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb. In recognition of the “intrepid and heroic gallantry” of First Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb, commander of the revenue cutter Hudson, and the officers and men under his command, “in action at Cardenas, Cuba,” on May 18, 1898, “when the Hudson rescued the United States naval torpedo boat Winslow in the face of a most galling fire from the enemy’s guns, the Winslow being disabled, her captain wounded, her only other officer and half her crew killed.” Approved May 3, 1900 (31 Stat. 717). First Lieutenant David H. Jarvis, Second Lieutenant Ellsworth P. Bertholf, and Dr. Samuel J. Call. In recognition of the “heroic service” rendered by First Lieutenant David H. Jarvis, Second Lieutenant Ellsworth P. Bertholf, and Dr. Samuel J. Call, all of the Revenue-Cutter Service and members of the overland expedition of 1897-1898, in providing relief to the whaling fleet in arctic regions. Approved June 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 492). Wright Brothers. In recognition and appreciation of the “great service” Orville and Wilbur Wright of Ohio, “rendered the science of aerial navigation in the invention of the Wright aeroplane, and for their ability, courage, and success in navigating the air.” Approved March 4, 1909 (35 Stat. 1627). Captain Arthur Henry Rostron. In recognition of Captain Henry Rostron, and the officers and crew of the steamship Carpathia, “for promptly going to the relief of the steamship Titanic and heroically saving the lives of seven hundred and four people who had been shipwrecked in the North Atlantic Ocean.” Approved July 6, 1912 (37 Stat. 639). Captain Paul H. Kreibohm and Others. In recognition of the heroic rescue of 89 people by Captain Paul H. Kreibohm and the officers and crew of the American steamer Kroonland from the burning steamer Volturno in the North Atlantic. The records of the United States Mint indicate that four gold medals were struck in CRS-24 commemoration of the actions of the Kroonland. Approved March 19, 1914 (38 Stat. 769). Domicio da Gama, Romulo S. Naon, and Eduardo Suarez. In recognition of the “generous services” of Domicio da Gama, Romulo S. Naon, and Eduardo Suarez “as mediators in the controversy between the Government of the United States and the leaders of the warring parties in the Republic of Mexico.” Approved March 4, 1915 (38 Stat. 1228). Charles A. Lindbergh. In recognition of the “achievements” of Charles A. Lindbergh. Approved May 4, 1928 (45 Stat. 490). Lincoln Ellsworth, Roald Amundsen, and Umberto Nobile. In recognition of the “conspicuous courage, sagacity, and perseverance” Lincoln Ellsworth exhibited during his famous polar flight of 1925 and his transpolar flight of 1926; and the contributions of Roald Amundsen, the distinguished Norwegian explorer, and Umberto Nobile, the distinguished Italian explorer, who participated with Ellsworth in the transpolar flight of 1926. Approved May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 2026-2027). Thomas A. Edison. In recognition of the “achievements” of Thomas A. Edison “in illumining the path of progress through the development and application of inventions that have revolutionized civilization in the last century.” Approved May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 1012). First Successful Trans-Atlantic Flight. In recognition of Commander John H. Tower’s “extraordinary achievement” in conceiving, organizing, and commanding the first trans-Atlantic flight; and Lieutenant Commander Albert C. Read, United States Navy, commanding officer; Lieutenant Elmer F. Stone, United States Coast Guard, pilot; Lieutenant Walter Hinton, United States Navy, pilot; Lieutenant H. C. Rodd, United States Navy, radio operator; Lieutenant J. L. Breese, United States Naval Reserve Force, engineer; and Machinist’s Mate Eugene Rhodes, United States Navy, engineer, “in making the first successful trans-Atlantic flight, in the United States naval flying boat NC-4, in May 1919.” Approved Feb. 9, 1929 (45 Stat. 1158). Major Walter Reed and Associates for Yellow Fever Experimentations in Cuba. In recognition of the “high public service rendered and disabilities contracted” by Major Walter Reed, James Caroll, Jesse W. Lazear, Aristides Agramonte, James A. Andrus, John R. Bullard, A. W. Covington, William H. Dean, Wallace W. Forbes, Levi E. Folk, Paul Hamann, James F. Hanberry, Warren G. Jernegan, John R. Kissinger, John J. Moran, William Olsen, Charles G. Sonntag, Clyde L. West, Dr. R. P. Cooke, Thomas M. England, James Hildebrand, and Edward Weatherwalks “in the interest of humanity and science as voluntary subjects for the experimentation during the yellow-fever investigations in Cuba.” Approved Feb. 28, 1929 (45 Stat. 14091410). This act was subsequently amended on July 2, 1956, and Sept. 2, 1958, to include the names of Gustaf E. Lambert and Roger P. Ames (70 Stat. 484; and 72 Stat. 1702) CRS-25 Officers and Men of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition. In recognition of the “high admiration in which Congress and the American people hold [the] heroic and undaunted services [connected] with the scientific investigations and extraordinary aerial expeditions of the Antarctic Continent, under the personal direction of Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd.” The records of the United States Mint indicate that 67 gold medals were struck in commemoration of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition. Approved May 23, 1930 (46 Stat. 379). Lincoln Ellsworth. In recognition of Lincoln Ellsworth “claiming on behalf of the United States approximately three-hundred-fifty-thousand square miles of land in the Antarctic between the eightieth and one hundred and twentieth meridians west of Greenwich, representing the last unclaimed territory in the world, and for his exceptionally meritorious services to science and aeronautics in making a two-thousand-five-hundred mile aerial survey of the heart of Antarctica, thus paving the way for more detailed studies of geological, meteorological, and geographical questions of world-wide importance and benefit.” Approved June 16, 1936 (49 Stat. 2324). George M. Cohan. In recognition of the public service of George M. Cohan during the World War in composing the patriotic songs “Over There” and “A Grand Old Flag.” Approved June 29, 1936 (49 Stat. 2371). Mrs. Richard Aldrich and Anna Bouligny. In recognition of Mrs. Richard Aldrich and Anna Bouligny “who, during the War with Spain, voluntarily went to Puerto Rico and there rendered service of inestimable value to the Army of the United States in the establishment and operation of hospitals for the care and treatment of military patients in Puerto Rico.” Approved June 20, 1938 (52 Stat. 1365). Howard Hughes. In recognition of the “achievements” of Howard Hughes in “advancing the science of aviation and thus bringing great credit to his country throughout the world.” Approved Aug. 7, 1939 (53 Stat. 1525). Reverend Francis X. Quinn. In recognition of the “valor of Reverend Francis X. Quinn, pastor of the Church of the Guardian Angel, New York City, who risked his life by entering the room when an armed desperado held two elderly persons as hostages, and who by successfully disarming this criminal and saving the lives of two innocent persons distinguished himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of his duty.” Approved Aug. 10, 1939 (53 Stat. 1533). William Sinnott. In recognition of action of “William Sinnott, a detective, who in guarding Franklin D. Roosevelt, then President-elect of the United States, at Miami, Florida, on February 15, 1933, was shot and wounded by Guiseppe Zangara, who attempted to assassinate” Mr. Roosevelt. Approved June 15, 1940 (54 Stat. 1283). Roland Boucher. In recognition of the “valor, bravery, and heroism of Roland Boucher, of Burlington, Vermont, age 11, who on February 12, 1941, risked his life in rescuing five children who had broken through the ice on Lake Champlain near Juniper Island, saving the lives of four, and who in so doing displayed unusual bravery CRS-26 and the presence of mind extraordinary in one of his age.” Approved Jan. 20, 1942 (56 Stat. 1099-1100). General of the Army George Catlett Marshall and Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King. In recognition of General of the Army George C. Marshall’s “distinguished leadership, as Chief of Staff of the Army and as a member of the Combined Chiefs of Staff of the United Nations, in planning the expansion, equipment, training and deployment of the great Army of the United States and in formulating and executing the global strategy that led to victory in World War II,” and the “members of the Army of the United States who served under his direction with such heroic devotion, and personal sacrifice.” In recognition also of Admiral Ernest J. King’s “distinguished leadership as Commander in Chief of the United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations and as a member of the Combined Chiefs of Staff of the United Nations, in planning the expansion, equipment, training, and operation of the United States Navy and in formulating and executing the global strategy that led to victory in World War II,” and the “members of the United States Navy, the United States Marine Corps and the United States Coast Guard,” and the “members of the Reserve Forces who served under his direction with such heroic devotion and personal sacrifice.” Approved March 22, 1946 (60 Stat. 1134-1135). General of the Armies of the United States John J. Pershing. In recognition of General John J. Pershing’s “peerless leadership, heroic achievements, and great military victories, as Commander in Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe in World War I, and for his gallant and unselfish devotion to the service of his country in preparation for, and the prosecution of World War II.” Approved Aug. 7, 1946 (60 Stat. 1297-1298). Brigadier General William Mitchell. In recognition of the “outstanding pioneer service and foresight of General William Mitchell in the field of American military aviation.” Approved Aug. 8, 1946 (60 Stat. 1319). Vice President Alben W. Barkley. In recognition of Vice President Alben W. Barkley’s “distinguished public service and outstanding contribution to the general welfare.” Approved Aug. 12, 1949 (P.L. 81-221, 63 Stat. 599). Irving Berlin. In recognition of Irvin Berlin’s “services in composing many patriotic songs, including God Bless America, which became popular during World War II.” Approved July 16, 1954 (P.L. 83-536, 68 Stat. A120). Doctor Jonas E. Salk. “In recognition of the great achievement of Doctor Jonas E. Salk in the field of medicine by his discovery of a serum for the prevention of poliomyelitis.” Approved Aug. 9, 1955 (P.L. 84-297, 69 Stat. 589). Surviving Veterans of the War Between the States. “In honor of the last [four] surviving veterans of the War Between the States who served in the Union or the Confederate forces.” Approved July 18, 1956 (P.L. 84-730, 70 Stat. 577). CRS-27 Rear Admiral Hyman George Rickover. “In recognition of the achievements of Rear Admiral Hyman George Rickover, United States Navy, in successfully directing the development and construction of the world’s first nuclear-powered ships and the first large-scale nuclear power reactor devoted exclusively to the production of electricity.” Approved Aug. 28, 1958 (P.L. 85-826, 72 Stat. 985). Doctor Robert H. Goddard. In recognition of the “great, creative achievements of Doctor Robert H. Goddard, and his historic pioneering research on space rockets, missiles, and jet propulsion.” Approved Sept. 16, 1959 (P.L. 86-277, 73 Stat. 562-563). Robert Frost. In recognition of Robert Frost’s “poetry, which has enriched the culture of the United States and the philosophy of the world.” Approved Sept. 13, 1960 (P.L. 86-747, 74 Stat. 883). Doctor Thomas Anthony Dooley III. “In recognition of the gallant and unselfish public service rendered by Doctor Thomas Anthony Dooley III in serving the medical needs of the people of Laos living in the remote areas of the Laotian jungles, and the peoples in other newly developing countries.” Approved May 27, 1961 (P.L. 87-42, 75 Stat. 87). Bob Hope. In recognition of Bob Hope’s outstanding “service to his country and the cause of peace.” Approved June 8, 1962 (P.L. 87-478, 76 Stat. 93). Sam Rayburn, Speaker of the House of Representatives. In recognition of Sam Rayburn’s “distinguished public service and outstanding contribution to the general welfare.” Approved Sept. 26, 1962 (P.L. 87-702, 76 Stat. 605). General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. “In recognition of the gallant service rendered by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur to his country.” Approved Oct. 9, 1962 (P.L. 87-760, 76 Stat. 760). Walt Disney. In recognition of Walt Disney’s “distinguished public service and outstanding contributions to the United States and the world.” Approved May 24, 1968 (P.L. 90-316, 82 Stat. 130-131). Winston Churchill. In recognition of Winston Churchill, on the occasion of the dedication of the Winston Churchill Memorial and Library at Westminister College in Fulton, Missouri, in May 1969. Approved May 7, 1969 (P.L. 91-12, 83 Stat. 8-9). Roberto Walker Clemente. In recognition of Roberto Clemente’s "outstanding athletic, civil, charitable, and humanitarian contributions.” Approved May 14, 1973 (P.L. 93-33, 87 Stat. 71). Marian Anderson. “In recognition of the highly distinguished and impressive career of Miss Marian Anderson for a period of more than a half a century during which she has been the recipient of the highest awards from a score of foreign countries, for her untiring and unselfish devotion to the promotion of the arts in this country and throughout the world including the establishment of scholarships for young people, for her strong and imaginative support to humanitarian causes at home, CRS-28 for her contributions to the cause of world peace through her work as United States delegate to the United Nations and her performances and recordings which have reached an estimated seven million people throughout the world, and her unstinting efforts on behalf of the brotherhood of man, and the many treasured moments she has bought to us with enormous demand on her time, talent, and energy.” Approved March 8, 1977 (P.L. 95-9, 91 Stat. 19). Lieutenant General Ira C. Eaker. In recognition of Lieutenant General Ira C. Eaker’s “distinguished career as an aviation pioneer and Air Force leader.” Approved Oct. 10, 1978 (P.L. 95-438, 92 Stat. 1060). Robert F. Kennedy. In recognition of the “distinguished and dedicated service” Robert Kennedy “gave to the Government and to the people of the United States.” Approved Nov. 1, 1978 (P.L. 95-560, 92 Stat. 2142). John Wayne. In recognition of John Wayne’s “distinguished career as an actor and his service to the Nation.” Approved May 26, 1979 (P.L. 96-15, 93 Stat. 32). Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Anderson, and Larry Newman. In recognition of the “distinguished feat” of transatlantic balloonists Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Anderson, and Larry Newman “as aviation pioneers.” Approved June 13, 1979 (P.L. 96-20, 93 Stat. 45). Hubert H. Humphrey. In recognition of Hubert H. Humphrey’s “distinguished and dedicated service” to the Government and to the people of the United States. Approved June 13, 1979 (P.L. 96-91, 93 Stat. 46). American Red Cross. In recognition of the “unselfish and humanitarian service” of the American Red Cross to the people of the United States. Approved Dec. 12, 1979 (P.L. 96-138, 93 Stat. 1063). Ambassador Kenneth Taylor. In recognition of Canadian Ambassador to Iran Kenneth Taylor’s “valiant efforts to secure the safe return of six American Embassy officials in Tehran.” Approved March 6, 1980 (P.L. 96-201, 94 Stat. 79). Simon Wiesenthal. In recognition of Simon Wisenthal’s “contribution to international justice through the documentation and location of war criminals from World War II.” Approved March 17, 1980 (P.L. 96-211, 94 Stat. 101). Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. In recognition of the “two hundredth anniversary, in 1982, of the establishment of diplomatic and commercial relations between the Governments of the United States and the Netherlands.” Approved March 22, 1982 (P.L. 97-158, 96 Stat. 18-19). Admiral Hyman George Rickover. In recognition of Admiral Hyman George Rickover’s “distinguished service and for his unique world-renowed contributions to the development of safe nuclear energy and to the defense of the United States.” Approved June 23, 1982 (P.L. 97-201, 96 Stat. 126-127). CRS-29 Fred Waring. In recognition of Fred Waring’s “contribution to enriching American life.” Approved Aug. 26, 1982 (P.L. 97-246, 96 Stat. 315-316). Joe Louis. In recognition of Joe Louis’s “accomplishments which did so much to bolster the spirit of the American people during one of the most crucial times in American history and which have endured throughout the years as a symbol of strength for the Nation.” Approved Aug. 26, 1982 (P.L. 97-246, 96 Stat. 315-316). Louis L’Amour. In recognition of Louis L’Amour’s “distinguished career as an author and his contributions to the Nation through his historically based works.” Approved Aug. 26, 1982 (P.L. 97-246, 96 Stat. 315-316). Leo J. Ryan. In recognition of Leo J. Ryan’s “distinguished service as a Member of Congress and the fact of his untimely death by assassination while performing his responsibilities as a Member of the United States House of Representatives.” Approved Nov. 18, 1983 (P.L. 98-159, 97 Stat. 992). Danny Thomas. In recognition of Danny Thomas’ “humanitarian efforts and his outstanding work as an American.” Approved Nov. 29, 1983 (P.L. 98-172, 97 Stat. 1119-1120). Harry S. Truman. In recognition of the “life-time of outstanding public service which . . . Harry S. Truman, gave to the United States, and in commemoration of his one hundredth birthday which was celebrated on May 8, 1984.” Approved May 8, 1984 (P.L. 98-278, 98 Stat. 173-175). Lady Bird Johnson. In recognition of Lady Bird Johnson’s “humanitarian efforts and outstanding contributions to the improvement and beautification of America.” Approved May 8, 1984 (P.L. 98-278, 98 Stat. 173-175). Elie Wiesel. In recognition of Elie Wiesel’s “humanitarian efforts and outstanding contributions to world literature and human rights.” Approved May 8, 1984 (P.L. 98-278, 98 Stat. 173-175). Roy Wilkins. In recognition of the “incomparable contribution of Roy Wilkins to the struggle for civil rights and equality for all Americans.” Approved May 17, 1984 (P.L. 98-285, 98 Stat. 186). George and Ira Gershwin. In recognition of “George and Ira Gershwin’s outstanding and invaluable contributions to American music, theatre and culture.” Approved Aug. 9, 1985 (P.L. 99-86, 99 Stat. 288-289). Natan (Anatoly) and Avital Shcharansky. In recognition of the “supreme dedication and total commitment” of Natan (Anatoly) and Avital Shcharansky “to the cause of individual human rights and freedoms.” Approved May 13, 1986 (P.L. 99298, 100 Stat. 432-433). Harry Chapin. In recognition of “Harry Chapin’s efforts to address issues of hunger around the world.” Approved May 20, 1986 (P.L. 99-311, 100 Stat. 464). CRS-30 Aaron Copland. In recognition of Aaron Copland’s “contribution to American musical composition.” Approved Sept. 23, 1986 (P.L. 99-418, 100 Stat. 952-953). Mary Lasker. In recognition of Mary Lasker’s “humanitarian contributions in the areas of medical research and education, urban beautification and the fine arts.” Approved Dec. 24, 1987 (P.L. 100-210, 101 Stat. 1441). Jesse Owens. In recognition of “Jesse Owens’ athletic achievements and humanitarian contributions to public service, civil rights and international goodwill.” Approved Sept. 20, 1988 (P.L. 100-437, 102 Stat. 1717). Andrew Wyeth. In recognition of Andrew Wyeth’s “outstanding and invaluable contributions to American art and culture.” Approved Nov. 9, 1988 (P.L. 100-639, 102 Stat. 3331-3332). Laurence Spelman Rockefeller. In recognition of Laurence Spelman Rockefeller’s “leadership on behalf of natural resource conservation and historic preservation.” Approved May 17, 1990 (P.L. 101-296, 104 Stat. 197-199). General Matthew B. Ridgeway. In recognition of General Matthew B. Ridgeway’s “distinguished service to the Nation” during World War II and the Korean War. Approved Nov. 5, 1990 (P.L. 101-510; 104 Stat. 1720-1721). General H. Norman Schwarzkopf. In recognition of General H. Norman Schwarzkopf’s “exemplary performance as a military leader in coordinating the planning, strategy, and execution of the U.S. combat action and his invaluable contributions to the United States and to the liberation of Kuwait as Commander-inChief, United States Central Command.” Approved April 23, 1991 (P.L. 102-32; 105 Stat. 175-176). General Colin Powell. In recognition of General Colin Powell’s “exemplary performance as a military leader and advisor to the President in planning and coordinating the military response of the United States to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the ultimate retreat of Iraqi forces and Iraqi acceptance of all United Nations Resolutions relating to Kuwait.” Approved April 23, 1991 (P.L. 102-33; 105 Stat. 177-178). Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson. In recognition of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson’s “outstanding and enduring contributions toward world education, morality, and acts of charity.” Approved Nov. 2, 1994 (P.L. 103-457; 108 Stat. 4799-4800). Ruth and Billy Graham. In recognition of Ruth and Billy Graham’s “outstanding and lasting contributions to morality, racial equality, family, philanthropy, and religion." Approved Feb. 13, 1996 (P.L. 104-111; 110 Stat. 772773). Francis Albert “Frank” Sinatra. In recognition of Frank Sinatra’s “outstanding and enduring contributions through his entertainment career and humanitarian activities.” Approved May 14, 1997 (P.L. 105-14, 111 Stat. 32-33). CRS-31 Mother Teresa of Calcutta. In recognition of Mother Teresa of Calcutta’s “outstanding and enduring contributions through humanitarian and charitable activities.” Approved June 2, 1997 (P.L. 105-16, 111 Stat. 35-36). Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew. In recognition of Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew’s “outstanding and enduring contributions toward religious understanding and peace.” Approved Oct. 6, 1997 (P.L. 105-51, 111 Stat. 11701171). Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. In recognition of Nelson Rolihlahla's "life-long dedication to the abolition of apartheid and the promotion of reconciliation among the people of the Republic of South Africa." Approved July 29, 1998 (P.L. 105-215, 112 Stat. 895-896). Little Rock Nine. In recognition of the "selfless heroism" Jean Brown Trickey, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Melba Patillo Beals, Terrence Roberts, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Thelma Mothershed Wair, Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, and Jefferson Thomas "exhibited and the pain they suffered in the cause of civil rights by integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas." Approved Oct. 21, 1998 (P.L. 105-277, 112 Stat. 2681-597). Gerald R. and Betty Ford. In recognition of Gerald R. and Betty Ford's "dedicated public service and outstanding humanitarian contributions to the people of the United States." Approved Oct. 21, 1998 (P.L. 105-277, 112 Stat. 2681-598). Rosa Parks. In recognition of Rosa Parks’ “contributions to the Nation” as the “first lady of civil rights” and “mother of the freedom movement,” and whose “quiet dignity ignited the most significant social movement in the history of the United States.” Approved May 4, 1999 (P.L. 106-26; 113 Stat. ) CRS-32 Name Index Abruzzo, Ben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 28 Agramonte, Aristides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Aldrich, Mrs. Richard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 25 American Red Cross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 14, 28 Ames, Roger P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Amundsen, Roald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 14, 24 Anderson, Marian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 27 Anderson, Maxie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 28 Andrus, James A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Bainbridge, William . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Barkley, Alben W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 26 Bartholomew, Ecumenical Patriarch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15, 31 Beals, Melba Patillo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Berlin, Irving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 26 Bertholf, Ellsworth P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Biddle, James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 20 Blakely, Johnston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Boucher, Roland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 25 Bouligny, Anna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 25 Breese, J. L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Brown, Jacob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Bullard, John R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Burrows, William . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Byrd Antarctic Expedition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 25 Byrd, Richard E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 25 Call, Samuel J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Captain Creighton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 22 Captain Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 22 Captain Stouffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 22 Caroll, James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Cassin, Stephen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapin, Harry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 29 Churchill, Winston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 27 Clemente, Roberto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 27 Cohan, George M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 25 Cooke, R. P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Copland, Aaron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 30 Covington, A. W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Crandall, Albert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Crandall, Jared S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Croghan, George . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 da Gama, Domicio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Dean, William H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Decatur, Stephen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Diplomatic representatives of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 24 Disney, Walt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 27 Dooley III, Thomas Anthony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 27 Eaker, Ira C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 28 CRS-33 Eckford, Elizabeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Edison, Thomas A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 24 Elliott, Jesse D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Ellsworth, Lincoln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 15, 24, 25 England, Thomas M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Field, Cyrus W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 22 Folk, Levi E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Forbes, Wallace W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Ford, Gerald R. and Betty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 14, 31 Francis, Joseph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 23 Frost, Robert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 7, 27 Gaines, Edmund P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Gates, Horatio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 18 Gavitt, Courtland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Gershwin, George . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 29 Gershwin, Ira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 29 Goddard, Robert H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 27 Graham, Billy and Ruth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 30 Grant, Ulysses S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 22 Green, Byron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Green, Ernest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Greene, Nathaniel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 18 Hamann, Paul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Hanberry, James F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Harrison, William Henry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Harvey, John D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Henly, Robert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Hildebrand, James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Hinton, Walter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Hope, Bob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 7, 27 Horn, Jr., John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 22 Hughes, Howard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 25 Hull, Isaac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Humphrey, Hubert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 28 Ingraham, Duncan N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 21 Jackson, Andrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Jarvis, David H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Jernegan, Warren G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Johnson, Lady Bird . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 29 Jones, Jacob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Jones, John Paul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 18 Karlmark, Gloria Ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Kennedy, Robert F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 28 King, Ernest J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 26 Kissinger, John R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Kreibohm, Paul H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 23 L'Amour, Louis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 29 Lambert, Gustaf E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 LaNier, Carlotta Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Larkin, Daniel F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 CRS-34 Larkin, Frank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Lasker, Mary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 30 Lawrence, James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Lazear, Jesse W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Lee, Henry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 3, 18 Lindbergh, Charles A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 24 Little Rock Nine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Louis, Joe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 13, 29 M'Call, Edward R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 MacArthur, Douglas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 27 MacDonough, Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Macomb, Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15, 31 Marshall, George C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 26 Melville, George Wallace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 23 Miller, James . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Mitchell, William (Billy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 26 Moran, John J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Morgan, Daniel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 18 Mother Teresa of Calcutta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 14, 15, 31 Naon, Romulo S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Nash, Edwin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Nash, Eugene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Nash, William . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Newcomb, Frank H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 23 Newman, Larry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 28 Nobile, Umberto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 15, 24 Olsen, William . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Owens, Jesse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 30 Peabody, George . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 22 Perry, Oliver Hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Pershing, John J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 26 Porter, Peter B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Powell, Colin L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 30 Preble, Edward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 19 Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 28 Quinn, Francis X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 25 Rayburn, Sam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 27 Read, Albert C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Reed, Walter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 24 Rescuers of the Officers and Crew of the U. S. Brig Somers . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 21 Rhodes, Eugene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Rickover, Hyman George . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 27, 28 Ridgeway, Matthew B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 30 Ripley, Eleazar W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Roberts, Terrence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Robinson, George F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 22 Rockefeller, Laurence S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 30 Rodd, H. C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Rose, Frederick A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 14, 21 CRS-35 Rostron, Arthur Henry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 23 Ryan, Leo J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 29 Salk, Jonas E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 26 Schneerson, Rabbi Menachem Mendel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 30 Schwarzkopf, H. Norman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 30 Scott, Winfield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 20, 21 Shcharansky, Avital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 29 Shcharansky, Natan (Anatoly) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 29 Shelby, Isaac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Sinatra, Francis Albert (Frank) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 8, 30 Sinnott, William . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 25 Slater, John F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 22 Sonntag, Charles G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Stewart, Charles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Stone, Elmer F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Suarez, Eduardo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Surviving Veterans of the War Between the States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 26 Taylor, Kenneth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 28 Taylor, Zachary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 21 Thomas, Danny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 29 Thomas, Jefferson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Towers, John H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Trickey, Jean Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Truman, Harry S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 29 Truxtun, Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 18 Vanderbilt, Cornelius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 22 Wair, Thelma Mothershed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 31 Waring, Fred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 29 Warrington, Lewis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Washington, George . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3, 18 Wayne, Anthony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 18 Wayne, John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 28 Weatherwalks, Edward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 West, Clyde L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Wiesel, Elie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 29 Wiesenthal, Simon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 28 Wilkins, Roy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 29 Wright, Orville . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 8, 23 Wright, Wilbur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 8, 23 Wyeth, Andrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 30